Новый текст Соглашения о государственных закупках ВТО: основные результаты и значение.
Approval and implementation of the revised text of WTO Government procurement agreement (GPA) became the events of vital importance not only for the GPA Parties, but for the whole process of WTO multilateral trade negotiations during last decades as well. The main purposes of the GPA revision were renewal and improvement of the Agreement and extension of its coverage. Among the results of negotiations, the following are the most significant: clear description of transitional measures and other opportunities for developing countries after accession to the GPA, incorporation of electronic procurement provisions and remarkable extension of market access commitments among the Parties to the GPA
Since the beginning of the market reforms in Russia, its integration into the world economy and the dependence on trends of the world economy development is steadily rising. New challenges from the world market and new opportunities for domestic producers, appeared after the liberalization of international trade, have become an important factor affecting the domestic economy. The research is devoted to estimation of general trends in trade development in Russia after it’s liberalization in 1991. The key questions we’d like to answer within the presented analysis are: 1) what were the economic conditions for development of trade in Russia after the launch of market reforms; 2) did the level of openness of the Russian Economy increased during the last 15 years; 3) whether international trade development caused long-term changes in production structure and relative prices in the Russian economy?
Attempts to explain the determinants and the dynamics of wage differentials between skilled and unskilled labor have formed one of the most controversial topics in economics. The reason for such an intense interest in inequality in earnings between workers with different skill levels is the dramatic increase in wage inequality in the United States in the 1980s. However, the extent of wage differentials has substantially varied across countries over the recent decades. These different patterns across countries allow the factors contributing to wage inequality to be identified as a high priority research area. Skill-biased technical change is considered to be one of the factors contributing to wage inequality. This way of technical change favors highly skilled labor over less-skilled labor by increasing its relative demand and its earnings. This increase in the relative demand, as a rule, is caused by the appropriate increase in the relative productivity of more skilled workers. The other leading hypothesis that has emerged to explain the rapid changes in the wage inequality in the U.S. and some other countries over the recent decades is increased international trade between developed and developing countries. According to the standard Heckscher-Ohlin theory of international trade, countries endeavor to export goods that intensively use those resources they have in relative abundance. Thus, skill-abundant countries tend to be net exporters of those goods that intensively use skilled labor, while skill-scarce countries tend to be net exporters of those goods that intensively use unskilled labor. Furthermore, by virtue of the Stolper-Samuelson theorem, it increases the skill premium in developed countries and reduces it in developing countries. Therefore, the impact of increasing international trade with developing counties on the skill premium and welfare of unskilled labor in developed countries has been at the centre of a heated debate. This paper analyzes trends in wage inequality and returns to education in a number of OECD and non-OECD countries over the recent decades. A theoretical model is developed to explain empirical observations. The paper examines the impact of skill-biased technological change and trade liberalization on wage inequality across different countries.
The article is devoted to the Asia-Pacifi c Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum to be held and presided by the Russian Federation in early September 2012 in Vladivostok. The article gives the background for establishing the APEC, describes its goals and decisions adopted. It defi nes the APEC's place in the global economy as the largest association of States, which accounts for more than half of global GDP and which has set ambitious targets for establishing a free trade zone, liberalizing the investment climate and promoting regional integration. The article examines the major events in the global energy sector that triggered off the structural energy crisis in the early XXI century, causing the need for ensuring a global international energy security. The author suggests that the issue of energy security as a factor in implementing the strategic objectives of the APEC's economic and social development should be put on the agenda of the Forum. In this connection, the article analyzes the Draft Convention on Ensuring International Energy Security proposed by the Russian Federation for discussion and possible adoption. The article also puts forward several proposals for deepening regional integration to promote the development of the Far East and Siberia, and the creation of a new export base and promoting the Eastern vector of the Russian foreign economic cooperation policy.