Удовлетворенность россиян своей жизнью: факторы и приоритеты
The paper deals with the problem of single motherhood from the point of view of subjective perception of this status, its connection with psychological well-being in other spheres of mother’s life, resources and the strategies of coping with this difficult life situation. The results of an analysis of semi-structured interviews with 5 women, who class themselves as single mothers, are presented. It is shown that the feeling of being a single mother is not so much related to the actual separation from the father of the child, and to the help from the environment, but mostly - to the inability to share responsibility for the life of the child with someone. The state of loneliness in motherhood is experienced mainly as a heavy one, feelings of excessive tension, overload, confusion, guilt prevail. This condition is experienced heavier by those women whose partners (their child’s fathers) made the decision to part with them. The current relationships with the child’s fathers, according to the women, have little effect on their sense of lonely motherhood, more important is the father’s participation in the life of the child. Recognizing the importance of psychological well-being in various spheres of life, the impact of mother’s satisfaction with mother’s life on child-parent relations, due to limited resources, women often sacrifice well-being in other areas for the sake of child-parent relations. Many women seek to find new resources to harmonize their lives and child-parent interaction, recourse to the specialists. The most common strategies for coping with the difficult life situation are flexibility, acceptance of restrictions, sensitivity to the individual characteristics of their children and their own. Single mothers attach great importance to the joint time with children, rituals, the balance of emotional intimacy and distance with an adolescent.
Alcohol consumption is known to have an impact on various aspects of individual’s life. This paper is based on the idea that the alcohol consumption is very likely to influence on subjective well-being. Using data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE (RLMS-HSE) in this paper the links between alcohol consumption and subjective well-being is examined. RLMS-HSE data shows that a significant number of individuals consumed alcohol in the last month in Russia, the proportion of men drinkers is extremely high, and is around 60-70%. Two sources of endogeneity are discussed in the paper: individual characteristics, such as one’s value system and traits of character; and the existing environment, for example, a negative macroeconomic situation. Empirical estimates are obtained using probit adapted OLS approach. Results suggest that reasonable consumption of alcohol improves the level of life satisfaction. However, alcohol abuse produces negative effects on life satisfaction.
The goal of the empirical study described in the article was to identify the cross-cultural characteristics of coping strategies and psychological well-being undertaken on a sample of the Russian (n = 70) and the French (n = 70) students aged 18 to 25 years old using the following psychodiagnostic tools: “Scale of psychological well-being” (by C. Riff, adapted by N. N. Lepeshinsky), “Ways of Coping Questionnaire” (WCQ, adapted by T. L. Kryukova and E. V. Kuftyak). Presumably, in different cultures, the preferences of coping strategies are related to the level of psychological well-being to varying degrees, probably depending on the general level of stress in society and the presence of a conscious experience of successful management of the environment. It was empirically established that the French students adopt the strategies of confrontation and distancing significantly more often than the Russians, and the Russian students adopt the strategy of taking over the responsibility much more often than the French students. The French students significantly exceed the Russian students in their satisfaction with interactions with other people, in the degree of self-acceptance, in the ability to manage their own environment, and to set conscious goals in life. The Russian students outperform the French students in terms of satisfaction with personal development. The effectiveness of coping strategies in regards of their relationship with psychological well-being varies in different cultures. Therefore, the strategy of planning the solution of the problem is the most effective strategy for the French students, and the reassessment of the situation is the most effective strategy for the Russian students.