Новые формы децентрализации бюджетных решений и их влияние на повышение эффективности бюджетных расходов
The article is devoted to the problems of relationship between the public expenditures and the economic growth and methodical and practical problems of estimating expenditures efficiency. Authors note that “productive expenditures” (expenditures on human capital, social and economic infrastructure, research and development) have strong influence on the economic growth. The comparative study of the effectiveness and efficiency of the public expenditures was conducted, including the productive expenditures (education and healthcare), for Russia and the sample of countries close to Russia by their economic development level. The aggregated indicators of the effectiveness and efficiency, simple econometric models, DEA method, and based on them effectiveness and efficiency rankings are used as measuring instruments in the study.
According to the approach applied in the study, the rankings show relatively poor results for Russia in macroeconomic function performance of the public sector, in comparison to the other countries of the sample, but it is worth to notice that the aggregated estimates are influenced by the selection of time period. Russia shows high results in education public expenditures efficiency and relatively poor results in healthcare public expenditures efficiency. Also, the productive expenditures level is low in Russia compared to the other countries close to Russia by the economic development level and OECD countries. This can limit the economic growth in the mid-term and long-term prospects.
Th is article summarizes the results of the Russian Agricultural Public Expenditure Review (PER). PER studies are conducted by the World Bank on a regular basis. Th is study evaluates the level and structure of budget support to agriculture in Russia and its contribution to the long-term economic growth of the sector. We analyze, to what extent can the economic growth demonstrated by the Russian agriculture in recent years be attributed to the budget support policy and suggest how the redistribution of funds to diff erent means of support may increase this impact. Th e eff ect of the budget support to agriculture on economic growth in agricultural sector is evaluated using the model developed by Lopez and Galinato (2007) (fi xed-eff ects model). Th e federal budget support evaluation is supplemented by an analysis of inter-budget relations in agriculture. Th e data confi rm that budget support has a positive impact on agricultural growth; however, other factors have more prominent eff ect. In order to increase the efficiency of the budget support system in agriculture it is recommended to increase the transparency of budget support, redirect support by subsidies for producers towards general services, increase support for research and innovations, ensure the stability of support policies and limit the ability of the regions to obstruct competition through agricultural policies.