Концепции солидарности и сплоченности в русской социально-философской традиции: социальное учение П.А. Кропоткина
In the articles, reviews and abstracts submitted to your attantion under analysis are issues of social theory, empirical sociological studies, history of sociology. The contributions discuss the actual tendencies and perspectives of sociological science in Russia and abroad.
This volume includes the research articles of the participants of the Annual international scientific-practical conference «Innovations in science and education», which took place in the Educational private institution of higher education «International Jewish Institute of Economics, Finance and Law». The works are devoted to the wide range of topics that were discussed in the following sections of the conference: «Innovations in the field of economics, management and business-informatics», «Actual problems of jurisprudence», «Interdisciplinary cooperation in Jewish studies: from thought to text».
The article discusses approaches to the definition of social cohesion, challenges of the conceptualization discussed. Definitions of social cohesion vary not only from one studying it discipline to another, but inside this disciplines as well. Today, "social cohesion" - is not a concept, but the variety different ones. In addition to academic interest, research cohesion stimulated by political debate, in which the term has become increasingly popular. The article begins with a general reconstruction of the cohesion concepts in the classical works on sociology. In the following parts of the paper questions connected with the definition of social cohesion are examined. In studies of small groups we observed group and individual levels of social cohesion.
Early studies of cohesion in social and psychological works considered cohesion in terms of attractiveness of the group to its members. This interpretation has been criticized for its emphasis on the subjective perception of individuals and lack of attention to the group characteristics of cohesion. However, emphasis on groups has disadvantages. Interrelation and contrast between the two levels of cohesion is one of the most serious problems in the research of cohesion. There is an acute question of the interrelationship between rational and affective factors of cohesion. Researchers disagree on whether to consider the cohesion as a process or some condition. In many works cohesion appears as a synonym of solidarity and trust, and in different ways relates to such concepts as inclusion, social capital, social diversity, poverty. Later studies of social cohesion are mainly oriented to the multi-dimensional model. Social cohesion is presented in such studies as a composite concept, which reduces the interaction of independent factors.
Despite a long tradition of research into social cohesion and the development of sophisticated instruments to measure it in different groups, the scientists are far from agreement on the single definition. The paper proposes a new approach to the design of the most successful definition of social cohesion. The essence of this approach is to appeal to the everyday usage of the "cohesion" concept. Ordinary language is the key to understanding the cultural context (the "form of life"), which belongs to members of a particular community. Understanding the categories of ordinary language is not aimed at finding their essence but not a description of how and in what circumstances members of observed community use these categories. Search of the ordinary values of social cohesion is a variant of the necessary preparatory work, which is often by passed in research practice. Attention to use the concept of "cohesion" in ordinary language practice avoids confusion and controversy surrounding the definition of cohesion, providing a reliable criterion for its understanding.
In the article the main sociological problem of social solidarity is discussed in terms of sociology of emotions. Emotions as integral part of human behavior operate on micro- and macrolevel of social structure and promote social consensus and make adjustments to normative behavior. On the basis of analysis of the body of works on sociology of emotions the author concludes that sociologists tend to study social solidarity through «moral emotions». Namely these emotions have strong effects on individual and social behavior and hold up moral order and social solidarity. In the author’s opinion moral emotions are the part of emotional regimes, which are developed in social order and support social solidarity.
The paper presents an analysis of the key events associated with changes in youth culture and civic activities in modern Russia, occurring during the first decade of the 21 st century. Discursive representations of youth typical for this period (government programs directed toward the youth theme, media projects, activist initiatives), as well as policy responses to the growth of youth activities, including projects of youth mobilization, are also discussed. A key event - the financial and economic crisis (recession) in 2008 - is regarded as a turning point / the turn of the century, which particularly affected the reconceptualization of the youth question in modern Russia in different dimensions: political-activist, patriotic, urban, subcultural and others. In this article we suggest a new focus of considering new forms of youth activism, through the prism of the solidarity approach. We analyze key trends in new youth solidarities in the political, cultural and economic dimensions.
Social capital is shown to be connected not only with macroeconomic indicators at societal level but with peoples economic behavior (n = 634). Relationships of social capital and attitude to money are considered. Assumption that social capital can fulfi ll the regulative function in peoples attitude to material resources which can manifest itself at individual level in peculiarities of attitude to money is expressed. As far as different forms of capital can convert into each other, persons high social capital must be joined with his lesser money - orientation. Social capital at the individual level has a negative infl uence on intensity of the following monetary attitudes (according to A. Furnham): Retention, Power, Inadequacy, Security.
Sociology of altruism, morality and social solidarity: introduction in a new field of study.