Экологическая ситуация в российской Арктике
Throughout the twentieth century, glaciologists and geophysicists from Denmark, Norway andSweden made important scientific contributions across the Arctic and Antarctic. This research was of acute security and policy interest during the Cold War, as knowledge of the polar regions assumed military importance. But scientists also helped make the polar regionsNordic spaces in a cultural and political sense, with scientists from Norden punching far above their weight in terms of population, geographical size or economic activity. This volume presents an image of Norden that stretches far beyond its conventional limits,covering a vast area in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea, as well as parts of Antarctica. Rich in resources, scarce in population, but critically important in global and regional geopolitics, these spaces were contested by major powers such as Russia, the United States, Canada and, in the Antarctic, Argentina, Australia, South Africa and others. The empirical focus on Danish, Norwegian and Swedish influence in the polar regions during the twentieth century embraces a diverse array of themes, from the role of science in policy and diplomacy to the tensions between nationalism and internationalism, with clear relevance to the important role science plays in contemporary discussions about Nordic engagement with the polar regions.
The first volume involves the Russian Federation as a common denominator with either Norway (oldest multilateral region in the Arctic) or the United States (sharing with Russia the longest maritime boundary in the world) to interpret changes with connected biophysical and socio-economic systems that underscore decisions across a “continuum of urgencies” from security to sustainability time scales. The second and third volumes will emerge from presentations during the annual Arctic Frontiers Conferences in Tromsø, Norway, starting in January 2020. Volume 2 will consider circumstances associated with areas beyond sovereign jurisdictions from Arctic and non-Arctic perspectives, recognizing the international community has unambiguous rights and responsibilities in the Arctic High Seas under the law of the sea. Volume 3 is intended to synthesize insights on a pan-Arctic scale, analogous to the world ocean across all sea zones, involving decisions to achieve ongoing progress with sustainability, coupling governance mechanisms and built infrastructure. Throughout this book series, which we expect to expand beyond the Arctic, science diplomacy will be applied as an international, interdisciplinary, and inclusive (holistic) process, facilitating informed decisionmaking to balance national interests and common interests for the benefit of all on Earth across generations. With holistic integration, this book series will reveal skills, methods, and theory of informed decisionmaking that will continue to evolve, contributing to balance, resilience, and stability that underlie progress with sustainability across our home planet.
The EU-Russia common space on external security is examined.
The post-Cold War Arctic has seen a transformation from military tension and a focus on national security to a concern for environmental and human security. As a result of this, the globalized Arctic has a high level of peace and stability, maintained by international cooperation between the Arctic states, northern indigenous peoples, sub-national governments and local actors. There has also been a shift from environmental protection to economic activities and, consequently, states easily trump other interests. Now, in the Arctic, these challenges require fresh thinking on a local and global scale. Regional wars, the 'war on terror', and economic crises have posed new threats to Northern security order.
Draw particular attention to the environment , to protect nature and less to interfere with its vital functions - under these slogans will be held in 2013 . Decree of the President of the Russian Federation it is declared "Year of Environment ." In this regard , there is growing interest to the environmental situation , which is exploring , special emphasis is placed on the problems single-industry towns . Life in mono , and 333 of them in Russia , as already mentioned , depends on one or two companies . All of them during the crisis have come under particular hit . Thanks to government support have managed to create about 60,000 permanent and 190,000 temporary jobs . But generally favorable background unemployment situation is alarming in mono , Vladimir Putin acknowledged . Throughout the country, unemployment is minimal. The registered unemployment rate as of October 1 has averaged 1.3 percent , the overall ILO methodology - 5.2 percent . Compared with the beginning of the year , the registered unemployed become less - not 1.3 million people , and already 1,022 million in company towns , this figure is also reduced , however there now unemployed 104.2 thousand. In 144 monotowns unemployed more than the Russian average . In 44 - in two or more times , and in 14 localities registered unemployment rate exceeded 4 percent .  Considering the Russian company towns , which include Naberezhnye Chelny , Magnitogorsk , Togliatti, deserves special attention Viksa city where Vyksa Steel Works (VSW ) is the main enterprise . According to information obtained from the official website of the urban district administration Viksa , the city's population at 10 March 2013. is fifty-eight thousand six hundred thirty-five people. According to reports , VSW , the average number of employees in 2012. - Twelve thousand two hundred fifty-one people, representing almost 21 % of the total population of the city Viksa . Payroll - 4565928300 rubles, thus , the average salary is 31,058 rubles, which is 50 % higher than the average monthly wage in the Nizhny Novgorod region , and 10% higher than in Russia . 
Large-scale financial crisis, which led to a partial or absolute suspension of the core enterprises in 2008-2009 . Violated the livelihoods of many towns, of which 24% is concentrated in the urban population of the country. Taking into account the importance of this problem , it should be noted that the toolkit , as well as strategic and tactical methods of its solutions do not have sufficient economic justification. In solving the problems of one-company towns are closely related aspects such as social policy , the prospects for the development of small towns , the social responsibility of business , diversification of the economy and innovation. In the single-industry cities, which make up 14% of total urban population of some 35 million people . According to the Institute of Regional Development of about 500 single-industry towns need support , and there are cities that are not formally come under the status of " one-industry town ," but are in the same risk. More and more researchers devote their work problems of company towns not solely from an economic point of view, but with the social and environmental ¬ Hoc . The need to address the problem of single-industry towns in Russia is due to the following reasons : • a significant proportion of company towns are not in a state of crisis ( do not fit the definition ) ; • single-industry towns that are in a state of crisis there is an increase the number of social problems; • improving the quality of life in mono depends on the optimization of the distribution of the productive forces of Russia , the socio -economic development of its members. Industry specific specialization of cities had and continues to have a significant impact on the development of the world economy . Analyzing the experience of other countries, it can be seen that provided a consistent and comprehensive program of action to modernize the company towns may in a few years to make a breakthrough .