This paper provides a foundation for a form of phenomenology, namely phenomenological, that rejects the traditional phenomenology of religion in order to provide a cognitive and non-theological discipline in the study of religion. Proposed amendments to phenomenology are based on the ideas of E. Husserl. The simultaneous strict distinction and necessary cooperation between facts and phenomena provided by the impurity of pure consciousness in admitting the outside world might enable the extension of scientific criteria to this reimagined phenomenology. Pure consciousness is considered irreducible to thought and cognitivity (feeling and accordingly, faith, might thus be viewed as a non-cognitive, purely emotional stream). This new comprehension of the phenomenology of religion could represent religion in all its contexts (God, supernatural forces as well as holy places, churches, utensils, texts etc) in the pure consciousness of the believer, as the effects of its structures, namely feeling and thought and their interactions and peculiarities.
In his famous work «The Re-Enchantment of the West» Cristopher Partridge, proposed a theory which considering modern culture as a phenomenon formed under the influence of ideas and images that arose in the realm of Western esotericism. The term “occulture” was proposed by Partridge to name a special dimension of the popular culture after the 60s. According to Partridge, the extinction of interest in Christianity did not lead to the rejection of religiosity, but gave birth to a spiritual subculture that arose in the late XIX-early XX centuries in the circles of esoteric societies. When the ideas of these communities became popular and began to be used by mass culture, then the occulture emerged. A special place in Partridge’sstudies takes music. Recently Partridge released several works focused on description of occulture influences in modern music. The theory of occulture is quite interesting and has considerable heuristic potential, so it is natural to project it on the Russian material. Perhaps one of the most famous figures in Russian rock is Boris Grebenshchikov his role as one of the founders of the genre is undeniable. It seems that Grebenshchikov most fully fit in the framework of Partridge’s theory of occulture bricoleur, in his music one may find a synthesis of different and sometimes conflicting ideas: Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Kabbalah, Alchemy, etc. It seems that the case of Grebenshchikov should show the pros and cons of the theory of occulture bricoleur.
The article considers four approaches to the interpretation of images and mythologems from the sphere of Western esotericism in mass culture. The first approach is based on the depth psychology of C. G. Jung and aims to identify archetypes common to the whole culture. The second is based on the reductionist theories of Marx and Freud, its main task is to reduce religious imagery to social and psychological realities. The third approach is represented by C. Partridge theory of occulture, in which the emphasis is made on tracing the historical genesis of esoteric imagery in modern culture. The fourth approach is expressed in the writings of J. Kripal, it synthesizes the historicism of the theory of occulture with the understanding of mass culture as a way of self-knowledge, revealing the deep spiritual essence of man