«Самые вредные сектаторы»: социоконфессиональная роль женщин в старообрядческом образовании в XIX - начале ХХ в.
Women in Old Belief played the major sotsiokonfessionalny role. Their recognized learning in the Writing and the Legend led to that "cenobitic ranks", that is rules of Christian life and rescue stored in Old Belief families of the woman. Playing the dominating role in functioning of a confessional educational network, women brought considerable also in consolidation of this confessional community and ensured unprecedentedly high gender status in community.
n system of confessional and economic values, institutes and installations a staroveriya synthesis of traditions of an orthodox civilization and post-traditional society was carried out. Mentality of Old Belief owners and economic ethic showed basic possibility of development of society out of the western model of a property perception, historical reality of modernization on the basis of the Russian orthodox values developing in Old Belief and deformed in the Russian society in national scales by transformations of Peter I and his followers.
The article focuses on the most famous Russian pre-modern autobiography The Life by protopope Avvakum (1621/22–1682) to discuss his wife Natas’ja Markovna as one of its essential characters. Being the leader of the movement against religious reform in the seventeenth century Russia, Avvakum composed his life story in accordance with hagiographical canon of the martyr to send a propaganda message to his followers. The figure of Natas’ja Markovna in his text also works for this aim. In accordance with women’s hagiographic canon she is portrayed as wife and mother completely subjected to her husband’s will and doomed to share all hardships of his life. Though Avvakum’s autobiography was widely read, this religious/social context was often understood as insignificant for understanding its meanings. The same is true for the figure of the protopopica, which was used by Russian scholars and writers of the twentieth century to establish a canon of the model wife.
Almanac "Adam and Eve" - Russia's first periodical specially devoted to the problems of gender history, which is part of the interdisciplinary area of social and humanities. The authors use the opportunities of gender analysis in the study of various historical periods and areas of human activity, considering the past and present through the prism of relations between the sexes and socio-cultural concepts of "male" and "female."
The first business interest associations in Russia in 19th c. aroused on Old Belief confessional base and gained high economic effectiveness. Old Believers communities coordinated economic activities of hundreds and thousand the large and small enterprises belonging formally to their members. All three sectors of entrepreneurs, managers and workers formed this mix association. Members of association acted in the industry, trade, but also in agriculture. Top management of such associations was carried out by the largest businessmen making the Council of trustees accountable to a community. Confessional links were used as a network to support goods flow. The whole branches was organized as a common network where businesses of the Old Believers had differentiation in their functions / with some of them purchasing raw materials, others processing them, and still others engaging in retail and wholesale trade. All of the components of this network were under control of the Old Believer merchants of the same denomination. At the initial stage of the industrialization business associations of the Old Believers played an important part in organizational, economic and technical modernization of Russia’s trade and industry sectors.
The history of formation of the new scientific discipline – women’ and gender studies in Russian science of the past – is represented in the article through the prism of creation of the united information and search resource – a database “Women’ and Gender History of Russia, 1800-2010”. The authors focus the attention on the absence of such nationwide catalogues and bibliographies, on the complexity of the information collectioning and its generalization, as well as on the methods of ensuring the gathered information in the tags and keywords. At the same time the article encourages to join to the network of the researchers who study the past through the aspect of gender, talks about the role that “The Russian Association of Women’ History Researchers” played in the development of the “new social history” – with the ascent on the history from the individuals till the large social groups.
Modern social sciences view traditionalism as an opposite of innovations and economic growth. In Russia Old Believers was characterized by the deep traditionalism of their rituals and everyday life. The Old Believers, however, in 19th C. turned out to be leaders in technical and economic innovations. How did it coexist with the traditionalism of Old Believer denominations? By developing tendencies of Russian Orthodox society of the 16-17th C. in new social and economic environment and under the influence of prosecutions the Old Believers in the late 17th – early 18th C. created new confessional values. A new type of religiousness and of personality emerged an active worldview and a high level of responsibility. Then, in the state of eschatological stress, the Old Believers sanctified oversufficient labor as edifying and overcame traditional dislike for entrepreneurship and ownership of property. In the early 19th century the concept of Business as Case was formed. For the sake of Business the Old Believers forewent the prohibition on innovation in the organizational and technical sphere while keeping it in place for their everyday lives. The fusion of innovation and tradition called to life the non-etatist modernization of whole sectors of the Russian economy.
Almanac "Adam and Eve" - first periodical specially devoted to the problems of gender history, which is part of the interdisciplinary area of social and humanities. The authors use the opportunities of gender analysis in the study of various historical periods and areas of human activity, considering the past and present through the prism of relations between the sexes and socio-cultural concepts.
This project is an attempt to challenge the canonical gender concept while trying to specify what gender was in the medieval and early modern world. Despite the emphasis on individual, identity and difference that past research claims, much of this history still focuses on hierarchical or dichotomous paring of masculinity and femininity (or male and female). The emphasis on differences has been largely based on the research of such topics as premarital sex, religious deviance, rape and violence; these are topics that were, in the early modern society, criminal or at least easily marginalizing. The central focus of the book is to test, verify and challenge the methodology and use the concept(s) of gender specifically applicable to the period of great change and transition. The volume contains two theoretical sections supplemented by case-studies of gender through specific practices such as mysticism, witchcraft, crime, and legal behaviour. The first section, "Concepts", analyzes certain useful notions, such as patriarchy and morality. The second section, "Identities", seeks to deepen this analysis into the studies of female identities in various situations, cultures and dimensions and to show the fluidity and flexibility of what is called femininity nowadays. The third part, "Practises", seeks to rethink the bigger narratives through the case-studies coming from Northern Europe to see how conventional ideas of gender did not work in this particular region. The case studies also challenge the established narratives in such well-research historiographies as witchcraft and sexual offences and at the same time suggest new insights for the developing fields of study, such as history of homicide.