Причины современных конфликтов и методы их урегулирования в концепциях М. Калдор и С. Хантигтона
The paper deals with weak and strong points of paradigms clash of civilizations of Samuel Huntington and new wars of Mary Kaldor. The main aspects of both concepts about the peacemaking and generation and features of conflicts are given. Investigation shows that Huntington’s paradigm has great potential to predict possible clashes, but Kaldor’s concept is more convenient to understand and deal with them.
This textbook is the product of a collective effort of historians from several research institutes and universities. In a concise and accssible form the authors cover the main problems and topics of the history of Sub-Saharan Africa from 15th century to the present. Among these are the development of African civilisations, the creation and the collapse of colonial systems,the making of colonial society, the development of anti-colonialism and the development of African nationalism, and the events, problems and challenges of the late 20th - early 21st centuries. The texbook contains essays on the history of 20 countries of the region.Uniquely, it also offers a history of relations between Russia and Black Africa.The sizable supplement contains documents pertaining to the history of the region. Indexes, chronology, glossary and bibliography conclude the text. The texbook is the first Russian manual on the modern and contemporary history of sub-Saharan Africa.
The idea of transformation of war is now one of commonplaces in philosophy of war and political thoughts. Changes in the field of power politics are associated with the decline of the state project as it was described by modern era political theory. Classical type of war was defined by high degree of regularity and was associated with the state that was the sole bearer of rights of war and peace. "New wars" appeared in the 20th century and were caused by different processes: monopoly on the use of force that was lost by the state, privatization of political sphere and globalization. However, according to the author, these processes rather show the transformation of political sphere and do not affect the essence of war that remains unchanged.
The article aims to identify the nature of social transformations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) under illegal minerals mining and smuggling carried out by foreign mining companies, armed groups, criminal groups of neighboring countries, "war barons" and associated "agents". New forms of government and economic activities resulted from government's failure to provide citizens of the eastern parts of the country with required services. In the conditions of complete disregard of national laws and interests regulating social relations, new rules of interaction between individual groups and between individual groups and local and central government authorities were developed. These new forms of social development have nothing to do with chaos: numerous rival centers of power on the fringes of the country exercise effective control, provide services and exploit local population. Poor people of the richest eastern provinces of the DRC who do not benefit from extraction and export of valuable minerals are forced to develop their own "survival strategies", including illegal minerals mining and smuggling. Illegal economic activities form new “legalized” authorities, change values of the Congolese and transform the society. As a result, the anti-government system of public relations reached a high point of development in the eastern regions of the DRC.
Spirituality is one of the key concepts in cultural historical psychology; however, its definition remains the subject of controversy. Most approaches simply reproduce the meaning of spirituality adopted in various religions (especially in Christianity). In this case spirituality is understood as a feature of human beings, something high spirited and positive, implying the infinite perspective of approximating the Absolute. Yet, when this concept is used in a non religious sense, its definitions reveal circular reasoning (spirituality is understood as an aspiration for spiritual values). One can also speak of circular reasoning when the religious understanding of spirituality is prefaced with scientific researches of spiritual phenomena in all spheres of human existence, so that the outcomes of such researches would confirm the initial premises, or even coincide with them. The author suggests that spirituality be understood as the potential for human freedom. Actualization of this potential can thus be positively or negatively evaluated with regard to the historically relevant cultural context (and not according to the absolute scale of values as it happens when spirituality is understood in the religious sense). The suggested interpretation implies the understanding of culture as the system of ultimate values that people accept as guidelines in their lives. Within this culture spirituality can be evaluated both positively and negatively, and so do cultural values that spirituality refers itself to. This is spirituality in its subjective meaning. Objectivation of spirituality can be defined as the potential for culture that is being actualized in the changes in the system of cultural universals. The spirit of culture is free and thus capable of such changes. Otherwise, there is no culture, but only its formal outer shell called civilisation.
The collection contains materials of the plenary session, panel discussions and sections of the 17th International Likhachev Scientific Readings held May 18-20, 2017 in St. Petersburg State University. The representatives of more than 20 countries took part in the Readings. The agenda of the Readings includes the universal problems of our time: "Education in conditions of formation of a new type of culture", "Culture and global challenges of world development", "Humanitarian problems of modern civilization."
e emergence of “new wars” in the second half of the twentieth century has changed the conventional paradigm for thinking about military con icts and called into question the relevance of what previous theorists have o ered. However, the most useful approach to the analysis of war is based on the widely accepted concep- tual framework of the theory of just war, which is itself grounded in analytical eth- ics. e interpretations of just war theory by Michael Walzer, Nick Fotion, Brian Orend and Je McMahan are central to an ethical understanding of war, but they are of only limited value for considering the topic of “new wars,” which meanwhile are in constant flux. Philosophical thinking on these matters is failing keep pace with the transforma- tion of the object it is considering. War is becoming a media phenomenon, a subject for futuristic speculation, and a routine reality for a number of countries and regions. It is losing its clear spatial and temporal contours, and although we are gaining greater control over its management and increasing the variety of forms that military con icts take, we are losing control over the overall situation. War should be now seen as a complex phenomenon of social reality that demands a revision of the outdated and limited ethical supports that have been provided for this “necessary evil.” Military conflicts are among the images of modernity that must be apprehended in all their complexity.
Society and television in today's Russia are in a state of protracted conflict. This ever-deeping conflict is of ethical nature. So, if the channels continue their policies of pursuit of superprofits, do nt change their tactics and strategies and ignore the demands of the televiewers institutional changes lie in store for this country introducing stricter advertising laws and new forms of social control.