Rethinking the Doctoral Degrees in the Changing Labor Market Context
The objective of this paper is to estimate the factors of intergeneration educational mobility in Russia and Soviet Union, that is to test the equality in accessing the continuation of education at the next level for children from different social groups (families with various levels of the family capital), estimated for different cohorts. The data source is Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2006-11. There are panel data collected in 1994-2011. The sample is representative for Russia population as a whole. In 2006 there were some questions about respondent parents, that allow us to test if there is the dependence between educational level of respondent and some parameters of his/her parents, including their educational level, Communist Party membership and several other.
We estimated the model of probability to get the education of the given level depending on gender, age, nationality, characteristics of parents and birthplace for Russian people born in 1946-1990. Data about respondents' education are collected in 2006-11, about their parents - in 2006. The method of this model estimation is multinomial regression. The model was estimated for the pooled sample, as well as for three cohorts separately: born in 1946-60, 1961-75, 1976-90. It was found out that the family capital (first of all, the educational level of parents and urbanization level) represent an essential obstacle for educational opportunities of Russian high schools graduates. Regression estimation for the pooled sample demonstrates the significant level of dependence of respondents' education on that of their parents.
The career paths of Russian doctorates are explored based on three types of mobility: inter-sectoral, intra-sectoral and international mobility. The project focuses on two major interlinked issues: 1) mobility and internationalization, 2) skills and motivations for research career.
The career trajectories of doctoral holders are addressed in terms of career employment and effects on productivity (publications, patents, salary). This analysis is complemented by a second major issue, which aims to understand the role of motivations, experiences, professional shifts and other social phenomena in decision-making processes concerning career paths, and the decisions of opting for one type of mobility over the other, when mobile.
The study of Russian doctorate holders confirmed the main trend of modern R&D system, namely the intensification of international contacts and cooperation at all levels: individual, institutional and intergovernmental. The second major issue aims to understand the role of motivations, experiences, professional shifts and other social phenomena in decision-making processes concerning career paths, and the decisions of opting for one type of mobility over the other, when mobile.
This article revisits the evolution of intergenerational social mobility in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. In particular, it looks at historical changes in the residential, educational and occupational mobility of Russians. The study contributes to the literature by extending the spectrum of institutional and historical contexts, in which the (in)equality of opportunity has been considered so far, re-examining existing evidence by using alternative datasets and a different methodology.
For an empirical investigation I utilize data from four representative cross-national surveys conducted in Russia in 1994, 2002, 2006 and 2013. Following the theoretical arguments developed in the comparative social mobility research and being informed by their empirical findings, I anticipated (1) a trend towards lesser openness in the late years of the Soviet era; (2) a temporary discontinuity of mobility patterns during the turbulent 1990s; and (3) the stagnation of social mobility in the more stable years of Russia’s post-Soviet history. However, my findings reveal no unambiguous trends suggested by previous research, moreover they contradict some of the earlier evidence. In particular, I found (1) steadily decreasing residential mobility both in absolute and relative terms (implying increasing closure of residential communities); (2) a weakening link between parental and child educational attainment in the post-Soviet era; and (3) the invariance of social fluidity in terms of occupational attainment both in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the remaining questions and possible directions for future research.
Published here is the second part of the article. It begins with discussion of loglinear modeling, a technique which is used to analyze mobility tables and to explore the patterns of relative social mobility. In the rest of the article I discuss the empirical findings with regard to the three dimensions of social mobility outlined above. Finally I draw the conclusions, which generalize findings from both parts of the article.
The article describes the methodological approaches to the construction of the career development system in the organization. Some of the key terms used in the process of human development are described. The basic elements of the career development system, such as job profile, card capacity, the career ladder are described. The key participants in the process of career development and their responsibilities are studied. Some of the key performance indicators used in the career development system of the organization, and the formulas required to calculate the needs and employee turnover are highlighted. The areas of work with reservists, such as development, progress and exclusion from the personnel reserve are considered.