Heterogeneous Self-Employment and Work Values: The Evidence from Online Freelance Marketplaces
This study contributes to the literature on heterogeneous self-employment by investigating the diversity of work motivation. Using two samples obtained from freelancers, who participate in online freelance marketplaces, we analyze the relationship between individual work values and self-employment situations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed four value dimensions: (1) intrinsic, (2) social, (3) comfort, and (4) security. Using multinomial logistic regression, we found that people who work exclusively as freelancers, moonlighters who also hold regular jobs, and entrepreneurs who also run small businesses have distinct sets of work values. Genuine freelancers ignore security and social values, but seek intrinsic rewards and comfort to balance work and life. Entrepreneurs show the least preference for security, do not appreciate comfort, but seek intrinsic and social job rewards. Moonlighters show the highest preference for security, value social rewards, but ignore intrinsic rewards and comfort. Although the study deals with the self-employed, it also sheds light on the general association between work values and jobs.