Actual problems of the investment law in the BRICS: Comparative legal characteristics of public-private partnership according to the Russian and Chinese legislation
The term 'Global South' marks a new attempt at providing order and meaning in the current global political constellation, replacing the term 'Third World'. But the term 'Global South' is fraught with many ambiguities. These eight essays explore the possible meanings of this new distinction and assess the advantages and disadvantages of adopting it. They cast a wide exploratory net, looking beyond the dominant politico-economic meaning to how the way that we interpret the world has changed over time and the wider cultural–intellectual meanings. Key Features Asks whether 'Global South' and 'Global North' are useful for understanding the current global constellation Analyses the recent global transformation that allegedly made the 'Third World' disappear and the 'Global South' emerge Explores how space is used for different but overlapping purposes: to build socio-political concepts, to criticise recent trends in global developments and to develop a normative angle for collective political action Draws on global history, conceptual history, comparative literature, social and political theory, political philosophy and social history to develop a full, interdisciplinary picture of the uses of 'South' and 'North'.
Financial and economic issues have been among key items of the agenda of the BRIC group of Brazil, Russia, India and China, and have remained when South Africa joined to form the BRICS. Since its first meeting, the group has been interested in changing the global financial architecture. That architecture is “a loose set of multilateral agreements and understandings, among a core group of powerful capitalist states, about the rules and norms that govern, and/or should govern, cross-border money and credit transactions of all kinds” [Armijo, 2002, p. 3]. Given the existing system of multilateral financial institutions, the establishment of the New Development Bank (NDB) by the BRICS will have an impact on that global financial architecture.
Background and motivation for a study of business cycles, business tendency surveys (BTSs), and cyclical indicators in the BRICS countries are specified. The main concepts and problems involved in monitoring and forecasting business cycles in emerging countries and countries in transition are overviewed; the importance of the experience of the BRICS in this context is demonstrated; different examples of the interaction between business cycles and social and political spheres are outlined. At last, the structure of the book is adduced.
The Report predicts that the coming five years will witness the five countries keep improving in national innovative competitiveness, with China and Russia maintaining their strong growth momentum, India growing at a moderate rate, and Brazil and South Africa gradually picking up speed and climbing out of the trough. It estimates that the five countries’ national innovative competitiveness will be keeping steady growth by 2030.
The General Reports part presents a comprehensive analysis of the current status and achievements of STI cooperation between China and other BRICS countries and proposes priority areas of BRICS STI cooperation to provide valuable decision inputs for the BRICS countries to accelerate the improvement of their national innovative competitiveness. The Country Reports part respectively analyzes and makes predictions on the national innovative competitiveness of the BRICS countries based on a survey of their STI development and STI cooperation within the BRICS framework. The Thematic Reports part focuses on four thematic areas closely related to STI, i.e. digital economy, financial inclusion, energy, and agriculture, and offers detailed analysis of the STI development and potential of the countries in relevant areas, providing additional inputs for a further understanding of the national innovative competitiveness of the BRICS countries.
• Experiencing a rapid economic growth, BRICS nations are now confronting a growing aging population and an increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
• The health care spending share of the economy in the BRICS nations is growing and constitutes an important part of governmental efforts to address population health and health care systems.
• Even with the growth in health expenditures, there remains a significant challenge in balancing the need for promoting public health, controlling NCDs, and improving population health in these emerging economies.
• BRICS nations have a great potential for embracing a public health agenda aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy lifestyles as part of the BRICS public health policies in order to improve population health and reduce the burden of NCDs.
International cooperation in science, technology and innovation (STI) plays an increasingly significant role as it allows one to gain access to new knowledge, increase national competitiveness, jointly respond to Grand Challenges, and contribute to overall bilateral and multilateral political cooperation. International alliances aim to establish a win-win system of common STI priorities in order to coordinate their research efforts in a wider political context. Within such a system, individual countries have to use different policy instruments for achieving their own benefits via STI collaboration with foreign partners. The paper addresses the following research question: “How can quantitative analysis help better identify priorities for STI collaboration that provide additional benefits for a country participating in such work?”.
A set of common STI priorities for BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) has been identified based on the analysis of strategic, Foresight, and STI policy documents and expert consultations. It includes a number of STI areas with a wide range of practical applications. Additional quantitative analysis shows how an individual member country can build its cooperation strategy by selecting particular thematic areas and relevant instruments for STI collaboration