Au-delà de la gestion du temps: de l'usage du temps, de la performance et du bien-être
In this chapter questions such as “What is a good use of time?”, “How can one achieve satisfaction with their time?” and “How can ones relationship with time contribute to their well-being?” are raised and discussed with regard to empirical research on various aspects of positive psychology of time. This chapter differs from traditional ways of thinking about time in organisations in three substantial ways. First of all, contrary to the widespread self-help book based approach to time from the perspective of time management, this chapter reviews the existing empirical research on time use, focusing on the implications of this research for organizations and individuals. Secondly, it highlights the limitations of believing that time is infinitely stretchable and defined good time use as one that results in increased well-being, rather than productivity at the expense of well-being. Thirdly, although the work place is in the centre point of the chapter, it looks at time use from a broader perspective of life and work-leisure balance.
A range of evidence is considered, based on both objective and subjective time use studies suggesting specific measures to increase well-being through time use, first of all, at workplace, but also touching on other domains, such as media, leisure, etc. It is demonstrated that the studies of objective time use seem to be slightly less relevant, because the associations between time spent and well-being depend strongly on the person: what may be right for one, may be detrimental for the other. Some interventions, though, may be good for most people and beneficial on the large scale, such as introducing work time caps. Good time use results from choosing activities that help people to satisfy their basic needs and are directed at intrinsic goals (helping other people, establishing relationships, developing and growing as a person, maintaining health and balance in one’s life). A pathway to increase basic need satisfaction and, as a result, happiness associated with good time use, is by supporting autonomy: giving people more opportunities for choosing and working towards goals that are self-congruent and intrinsic, benefitting both oneself and society.