Varieties of transition — varieties of entrepreneurship
The aim of this paper is to give a short overview of success and failures in theoretical explanation of bottom-up entrepreneurship development in economies and societies which are most often characterized as ‘transitional’ ones.
Human capital theory in recent decades has become the basis for educational policy in many developed countries. Expert discussions, however, often undervalue research findings and developments related to this theory that since the 1970s have consistently enriched understanding of how human capital contributes to personal well-being and socioeconomic development of society as a whole. Educational policy lags behind these elaborations, which leads to a decline in the impact of education upon development worldwide. In the 21st century, fundamentally new trends in socioeconomic dynamics pose unprecedented challenges for educational systems around the world, including Russia. Despite the quantitative growth of money and time spent on education, performance per unit of education costs has fallen. The human potential, created by education, is facing more and more difficulties in its capitalization: economic growth is slowing down at both at the country level and globally. This situation brings to life new attempts to claim insignificance of education for economic growth and for individual success. So far, these attempts have not been very influential in educational policy, but in many countries, such arguments already serve as a backdrop for budget decisions that are detrimental for education. Educational systems need to complement practices that contribute to the development of human capital. In this regard, several theoretical elaborations that have not yet became part of the mainstream discussion on human capital, could be helpful for understanding the role of human capital in socioeconomic progress and possible ways to improve it in the short and long term.
The 7th International Conference Innovation Management, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability (IMES 2019) took place on May 30 – 31, 2019 at the University of Economics, Prague. The conference was organised by the Department of Entrepreneurship of the University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic in cooperation with • Faculty of Management, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia • School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University in Vaxjo, Sweden • Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary • European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (ECSB) and other partners. Sound keynote speakers – Martina Musteen (San Diego State University, USA), Ilan Alon (University of Agder, Norway), Andrew Burke (Trinity Business School, Ireland), Arnim Wiek (Arizona State University, USA), Søren Salomo (Technical University Berlin, Germany) and Roy Thurik (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands) discussed the trends in the fields of innovation management, entrepreneurship and sustainability. The conference aimed to achieve academic excellence in a regional context and to establish a platform for mutual collaboration, exchange and dissemination of ideas among researchers and professionals. These conference proceedings contain contributions of the conference participants presented during both days of the conference. Authors of papers come from 22 countries all over the world, namely from Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Mexico, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, USA and Vietnam. All these contributions have successfully passed the doubleblind peer-review process.
This chapter elaborates on entrepreneurship in developed and developing countries and focuses on the optimization of entrepreneurial activities. Various scenarios are considered: independent functioning of the market, integration in the form of reorganization (mergers and acquisitions), integration in the form of clustering, and integration in the form of innovational networks and technological parks. The optimal structure of the integration processes and best-case scenarios for its implementation to accelerate the rate and increase the quality of economic growth are substantiated. The potential for uptake of integration processes in stimulating economic growth through entrepreneurship is determined by the level of institutionalization in an economy. In developed countries, all forms of company integration are characterized by the high level of institutionalization, which allows for their effective use for economic growth. Independent companies, mergers, and acquisitions restrain economic growth and reduce its quality, while clusters, technological parks, and innovational networks accelerate the rate of economic growth and increase its quality. In developing countries, integration processes in entrepreneurship have a different influence on economic growth and require further institutionalization
This paper investigates the persistence of self-employment in the districts of Kaliningrad, a Russian exclave, between 1925 and 2010. The area experienced a number of disruptive historical shocks during this period. This setting rules out the fact that the persistence of self-employment can be explained by the persistence of institutions and culture. Nevertheless, a high level of persistence of industry-specific self-employment rates is found. It is argued that a historical tradition of entrepreneurship created an awareness about the entrepreneurial potential of regions among the new population that was yielded after the collapse of the Soviet Union. This effect seems to be higher in regions where a specific industry was advanced in terms of technology use
The current economic problems of the formation and functioning of the domestic business, as well as the factors and existing opportunities for its further development are considered.
The innovative potential of Russian small business is not completely realized that is indicated by the comparison of its innovative activity with small entrepreneurship in many developed countries. The development of measures to support and stimulate the activity of small enterprises in Russia is attended, and the priority task is the search for mechanism to increase the participation of small enterprises in innovative transformations of economy. The aim of this research is to analyze development factors of small enterprises innovative activity in Russia considering substantial regional differentiation.
The conducted analysis was based on the data of Federal State Statistics Service representing the results of the survey of small enterprises innovative activity as well as the characteristics of socio-economic development of Russian regions. Multivariate statistical methods were applied. Principal component analysis was used to estimate the level of the development of small enterprises innovative activity. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression with further comparison of its results measured the influence of socio-economic characteristics of Russian regions on the level of small enterprises innovative activity.
Among tested socio-economic characteristics of Russian regions the expenditures on technological innovations of large and medium-sized enterprises, the indicators of population's educational potential, the level of ICT development and the population's standard of living had a significant impact on the level of small enterprises innovative activity development. The comparative analysis of the results of applied logistic regression and discriminant analysis showed high degree of their consistency and indicates appropriate predictive probabilities of the models.
The innovative activity of small enterprises in Russia is influenced by the complex factors characterizing scientific, technological and socio-economic regional development. The analysis allowed revealing key factors of small enterprises innovative activity growth and showed the necessity of targeted support of small business innovative activity considering regional features.
The rise of creative industries is closely connected with the range of changes concerning socio-economic development in postindustrial and digital economy; reflects new trends in consumer behavior and innovations in business models. Entrepreneurship in creative industries is very attractive sphere for small and medium-sized businesses, it gives new opportunities for cooperation between representatives of creative industries and other agents of economic and social relations. An interest to creative industries development could be observed from different stakeholders across Russia. Issues of effective functioning and interaction of commercial and non-profit organizations and entrepreneurs in creative sector are becoming the key points for successful development of markets in creative sphere.
This manual is designed to expand knowledge in the field of creative entrepreneurship, to understand the particular features of market structure from supply and demand side, and to apply practical recommendations and tools for solving specific problems that an entrepreneur faces in his activities. The manual consists of 3 chapters, the text reveals the definition and boundaries of the creative industries sector; economic bases of demand and supply side of market for products and services created by creative workers and having a symbolic and cultural value (Chapter 1). Besides, authors pay attention on dealing business in the digital environment and infrastructure for creative entrepreneurs. Chapter 2 of the manual reveals the issues of interaction and communication with consumers, identifying and working with various consumers segments, analyses factors that influence consumer’s decision-making process. The manual presents practical examples (cases) and tasks that allow to master and improve the tools of marketing research. Chapter 3 describes in detail methodology and stages of the business modeling in creative industries. Questions for self-examination, cases and exercises make it possible to combine the theory and practice of the questions studied. The manual is addressed to a wide range of readers, can be used by educational institutions, it is useful to the industry representatives as an additional theoretical and practical guide. The manual is created in the framework of the project “Creative Grasp” supported by the Council of Nordic Countries.
The entrepreneurial activity might be significantly heterogeneous at the regional level. Cases of economies, which have not been socialistic in the past, demonstrate that spatial differences in entrepreneurship are persistent over time. However, it is still unclear whether such historical effects exist in emerging economies. This study investigates the relationship between entrepreneurial activity in regions of Russia in the late 1980s and the current level of regional entrepreneurship. In order to measure the entrepreneurial activity in Russia we use shares of self-employed in the labor force of a region. This indicator might be a more accurate measure than the traditional one based on the number of small and medium enterprises. In this study we test whether current spatial differences in entrepreneurship might be explained by the official or shadow entrepreneurial activity in the late 1980s. Our findings show that regions with high entrepreneurial activity in a shadow and official sector of Russian economy now demonstrate a high level of self-employment rates. Thus, the entrepreneurial activity has a long-term impact on the self-employment despite to the significant changes.