Детерминанты гражданственного поведения в организации
The article deals with the problem of understanding the constructs "employee engagement" in scientific and practical literature. It is shown that the concept of "organizational commitment", "organizational citizenship behavior", "organizational identification" and "work engagement" are often seen as overlapping with the construct of "employee engagement." There is also the diversity of concepts describing the relationship of the employee with the organization that creates the terminological confusion and difficulties for their practical use. It proposed the concepts of "organizational identification", "organizational commitment" and "work engagement" to aggregate in the higher order construct "inclusion of employees in the organization
The problem of the study is link between entitativity and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The purpose of the paper is to broad the domain of person’s psychological attachment to the organization from widely used constructs of organizational commitment and identification to perceived integrity versus entitativity. In organization settings there are two groups (or foci), which form strong person’s attachments: working group and the organization as a whole. These groups also called foci of organizational identification. Entitativity and organizational identification were measured with both foci. «The Group Entitativity Measurer» (GEM) was used to measure both foci of entitativity. Organization identification with work group was measured with A Hierarchical (Multicomponent) Model of In-Group Identification adapted to Russian sample. We suppose that strong psychological attachments to group form behavior that beneficial both for the employee and for the organization. This voluntary behavior called Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The sample is a factory workers (N = 124) mostly men from Vologda City of Russia. The perceived entitativity of the work group predicts identification with the organization as a whole (R2=0.07***) and with the working group (R2=0.18***). Significant relationships between OCB and perceived entitativity of two foci were absent. Nevertheless some forms of organizational identification predict OCB. Emotional identification with organization as a whole predicts 3% of OCB variation.
The purpose of this paper is to examine manifestations, antecedents, and consequences of employees’ extra-role behaviour in Russian business organisations. The authors empirically identify four distinct types of extra-role behaviour: active prosocial, passive prosocial, oriented towards extra efforts at work, and challenge-oriented. The study is based on a sample of 112 employees from two organizations (manufacturing and IT). The analysis shows that organization-based management practices are stronger predictors of extra-role behaviors compared to respondents’ individual characteristics. The authors also found that the two types of extra-role behavior (‘passive prosocial’ and ‘oriented towards extra-efforts at work’), typically demonstrated by among by low-resource employees, seemingly result from poor management practices, and negatively influence on respondents’ job satisfaction and career promotions. In turn, high-resource employees tend to be engaged in active prosocial and change-oriented behaviors. These two types of extra-role behavior lead to higher work satisfaction and career success. The analysis enriches understanding of the nature of extra-role behavior in Russian organisations, its costs and benefits for organisations. It reveals the most effective types of extra-role behavior to be recommended for managerial implications.
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is an important management construct. Despite previous investigations in relation to social capital, the role of networks in its emergence has received only limited attention. In this paper we investigate the relationship between OCB, with data collected from supervisors evaluating their subordinates; several types of organizational networks (professional, friendship, support, supervisor-subordinate), and several other constructs (collected from the employees themselves), shown to affect OCB in the past. All data were collected at a large insurance company in Russia. Outcomes of this study have several important implications. First, the impact of networks on manifestation of OCB depends not only on the strength of network ties, but on types of network. Second, interorganizational relationships are complex and consist of several levels of mediated relationships. Results of this study can impact the theoretical understanding of OCB and have practical implications for the supervisor-subordinate relationships in the workplace.
The article describes the current state of school teachers extra-role behavior and identification with the school, in the context of Russian education reform. Literature review concerns what kind of behavior of teacher can be «extra-role», what means to be a "good teacher" or «good soldier» in school, what factors can be the cause or boost this behavior. Extra-role behavior is an essential component of labor efficiency, we propose to pay attention to it in the selection, evaluation and certification of teachers.
Among the many factors boosting extra-role behavior, three predictors were chosen: tenure at particularly school, school itself as grouping variable, identification with the school as organization. Hierarchical regression models based on data from school teachers in Vologda, Russia (N = 78, 6 schools), explained extra-role behavior «changing» behavior (Model 2. Improving the functionality, = 0.21) and behavior directed to peers (Model 4. Help to colleagues, = 0.20). Partial of predictors were different: for the tenure is was 0.10, for school grouping variable - 0.06, and to identification with the school team - 0.02.
Extra-role behavior of Vologda teachers is more salient compared to the sample of general organizations. Newcomers (by years in particularly school) show it much less frequently, perhaps, they do not have opportunities to influence the school organization and helpless to colleagues. Low satisfaction of group identification measured with «A Hierarchical (Multicomponent) Model of In-Group Identification» (Leach, 2008), can be caused by a large load or changes.
We assume that the load decreases extra-role behavior, and this leads to reduced work efficiency and provokes various unproductive compensation strategies: psychological burnout, freeze professional development. Newcomers and tenured teachers are varying by degrees by exhibition of such behavior, we assume the delayed effect of changes to beginners. School variation was large enough to consider the impact of context, because where and with whom we work affect our extra-role behavior.