Теории межрегиональной торговли
We consider a monopolistic competition model with endogenous choice of technology in the closed economy case. The aim is to make comparative statistics of equilibrium and social optimal solutions with respect to "technological innovation"; parameter which influences on costs. Key findings: with the growth of innovation and investment in the production increase; behavior of the equilibrium variables depends only on the elasticity of demand; behavior of the socially optimal variables depends only on the elasticity of utility; behavior of the equilibrium and socially optimal variables does not depend on the properties of the cost as a function of R&D.
Purpose: The regional economy depends on the structure of industrial production which has been established earlier. This study makes it possible to determine the hi-tech spheres in which the entrepreneurship is going to develop more successfully. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the technological proximity of the industrial production branches with the high-tech economy sector for further defining the egress from the previous development path.
Methodology: In order to determine possible egress of the region from the previous development trajectory there has been proposed a method of proximity evaluation between the high-tech sector and the existing structure of industrial production in the region. The characteristics of high technologies relatedness to other industry branches in the Russian regions have been defined.
Findings: For the Russian regions it was determined that less than 30% of sub-branches can be considered as connected with the high technology sector - 25%. The regions having the comparative advantages in the high-tech types of industry and sectors related thereto have been revealed. We have demonstrated that individual regions can progress through investment into interregional connections and entrepreneurship domestic innovations.
Research/practical implications: Considered as the investigatory contribution of the paper can be the alternative proposed to the comparative advantage index in the form of a localization coefficient to be used at evaluation of the technological proximity of industrial branches. The results of this study can be of benefit to representatives of the regional managerial bodies in the course of the economic policy development in the sphere of entrepreneurship.
Originality/value: Proposed in the article is a method for evaluation of technological proximity of industry branches which differs from the traditional use of the localization coefficient. The calculated proximity indexes make it possible to determine such high-tech industries to the development of which there are the necessary prerequisites in the region, i.e. the technologically similar industrial production is under development.
The article deals with the theory of monopolistic competition under demand uncertainty. The authors consider the economy with labor immobility consisting of the high-tech sector with monopolistic competition and the standard sector with perfect competition. Preferences between sectors are specified by the Cobb – Douglas production function. It is assumed that companies make output decisions under preferences uncertainty and consumers’ distribution by sectors will be known by the time of realization. It means that firms are informed about consumer demand with accuracy up to a multiplicative uncertainty which is generated by random parameters in the Cobb – Douglas utility function. The paper shows that demand uncertainty leads to consistent growth of prices and wages in high-tech sector in relation to salaries in the second sector. The impact of uncertainty on welfare is ambiguous. In particular, under the known expected value of uncertainty customers derive benefit from exaggerated companies’ expectations about clients’ desire to consume high-tech goods.
We propose a general equilibrium model to study the spatial inequality of consumers and firms within a city. Our mechanics rely on Dixit and Stiglitz monopolistic competition framework. The firms and consumers are continuously distributed across a two-dimensional space, there are iceberg-type costs both for goods shipping and workers commuting (hence firms have variable marginal costs based on their location). Our main interest is in the equilibrium spatial distribution of wealth. We construct a model that is both tractable and general enough to stand the test of real city empirics. We provide some theoretical statements, but mostly the results of numerical simulations with the real Moscow data.
We consider standard monopolistic competition models in the spirit of Dixit and Stiglitz or Melitz with aggregate consumer's preferences defined by two well- known classes of utility functions – the implicitly defined Kimball utility function and the variable elasticity of substitution utility function. These two classes gene- ralize classical constant elasticity of substitution utility function and overcome its lack of flexibility. It is shown in [Dhingra, Morrow, 2012] that for the monopolis- tic competition model with aggregate consumer’s preferences defined by the va- riable elasticity of substitution utility function the laissez-faire equilibrium is effi- cient (i.e. coincides with social welfare state) only for the special case of constant elasticity of substitution utility function. We prove that the constant elasticity of substitution utility function is also the only one which leads to efficient laissez- faire equilibrium in the monopolistic competition model with aggregate consu- mer’s preferences defined by the utility function from the Kimball class. Our main result is following: we find that in both cases a special tax on firms' output may be introduced such that market equilibrium becomes socially efficient. In both cases this tax is calculated up to an arbitrary constant, and some considerations about the «most reasonable» value of this constant are presented.