Роль обучения в активизации предпринимательского потенциала российского общества
The book contains papers by the leading contemporary researchers of entrepreneurship who belong to the group of awardees of the Global awared in entrepreneurship research as well as outlines of their research activities. First concise collection of the mainstream entrepreneurship research ideas of the end of the 20th - beginning of the 21th centuries.
This paper represents an initial report on findings for a study aimed at analyzing several key aspects of middle class development in the Russian regions (subjects of Federation - oblasts, krays, autonomous republics), namely: Federal and regional government programs to stimulate the growth of the middle class (content, tools of implementation, effectiveness); Behavioral strategies and economic behavior (consumption patterns propensity to save, investment) of different sections of Russian middle class; Middle class value orientation and political preferences (including preferences for democracy).
Relevance of statement and studying of a problem of entrepreneurial culture development of future managers is connected with features of development of the country, with orientation of the higher education to humanistic values and meanings. In our opinion the entrepreneurial culture can be considered in a context of cultures. The article presents a view on entrepreneurial culture in a context of "culture of usefulness and dignity". The entrepreneurial culture in the modern conditions, arisen as culture of usefulness, seeks to develop in itself lines of the personality significant culture, focused on dignity, "public understanding", the humanistic principle of "solidarity". Solving problems of modernization of the higher education, relying on competence-based approach, development of entrepreneurial culture in professional education of modern managers gets a special sense. Authors defined the basic principles and problems of the educational process directed on formation of entrepreneurial culture. Experience of faculty of management of NRU HSE in Nizhny Novgorod is presented in article, the program of entrepreneurial culture development of the youth is described. The program is realized consistently at three levels, each is caused by the purposes, methods, forms, age features of participants: The first level - "Formation of an image of the modern businessman". The second level – "An entrepreneurial mentality. First experience". The third level - "I am a businessman! ".
On the basis of in-depth case studies of four Russian regions, Kirov and Voronezh oblasts and Krasnoyarsk and Perm' krais, the trade-offs among social and economic policy at the regional level in Russia are examined. All four regional governments seek to develop entrepreneurship while preserving social welfare obligations and improving compensation in the public sector. Richer regions have a greater ability to reconcile social commitments with the promotion of business. Regions differ in their development strategies, some placing greater emphasis on indigenous business development and others seeking to attract federal or foreign investment. Governors have considerable discretion in choosing their strategy so long as they meet basic performance demands set by the federal government such as ensuring good results for the United Russia party. In all four regions, governments consult actively with local business associations whereas organized labor is weak. However, the absence of effective institutions to enforce commitments undertaken by government and its social partners undermines regional capacity to use social policy as a basis for long-term economic development.
Combinatorial abilities are fundamental to experimental thinking. The aim of this work was to design didactic objects that will stimulate preschoolers’ experimental thinking and to study young children’s thinking in relation to these objects. Six heuristic rules for the design of didactic objects are specified, and the responses of 623 children aged between 3 and 7 to the didactic objects are described in this paper. The first two calculating devices required rods to be pressed simultaneously for successive windows to be lit up or made visible. A total of 30 five year olds played with these for 20 minutes, and were seen to perform a logical series of actions in order to understand the device’s function. Half of the children counted the presses and thereby understood the way the device functioned. The second device was designed to allow all possible combinations of four variables. Sixty children between the ages of 4 and 6 played with the device for 20 minutes. A total of 88% of the children found all possible combinations of the device, with no differences between age groups in the strategies used. The third device had a matrix of shutters opened by buttons arrayed along two edges. In the first mode, single buttons presses opened the nearest windows and button presses along both edges opened windows on coordinates determined by the two buttons. In the second mode, single button presses opened nothing and simultaneous button presses along two edges opened windows on coordinates determined by the two buttons. Ninety children between the ages of 5 and 10 played with the device in the second mode for 20 minutes. The children used scientific strategies to discover the device’s function in the following proportions: 20% at five years, 50% at six years and 93% at 10 years. Eighteen children between the ages of 4 and 6 played with the device in the second mode. They played in pairs, and each child was assigned a row of buttons, thus requiring co-operation to open the windows requiring two coordinated button presses. All the children were eventually successful in the joint experimentation. The fourth device had 16 windows and eight buttons, which lit up the windows when pressed in logical combinations. A total of 20 five-year-old children were trained on this device to use combinations of button presses to light up selected windows. These children were then allowed to explore the third device in second mode by themselves. The trained five year olds all used scientific strategies in their search for the third device’s combinations. The study showed that preschoolers can combine actions and discover hidden relationships, and that the didactic objects can be used to develop children’s thinking.