Аксиомы веры и теоремы права: философия власти С.Л. Франка
The article reconstructs the general historical and philosophical background of the talk “Nietzsche and Russian thinkers related to him” (“Nietzsche und ihm verwandte russische Geister”) given by S.L. Frank at the Nietzsche Archive on February 25, 1932. On the basis of the archival material from the Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv in Weimar, the correspondence between Frank and Friedrich Nietzsche’s sister, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche is analyzed and the list of guests invited to Frank’s lecture is examined. A special attention is dedicated to a general reconstruction of the life and creative path of Carl August Emge, one of the first German professors of philosophy who voluntarily joined the National Socialist Party in December 1931, but who, at the same time, was a friend of Frank’s and the organizer of his lecture at the Nietzsche Archive in 1932. The appendix also presents two pieces of archival material: Frank’s letter to Förster-Nietzsche dated February 18, 1932 (repository: Goethe and Schiller Archives; signature GSA 72/BW 1458); the response letter from Förster-Nietzsche from February 22, 1932 (repository: fourth inventory of S.L. Frank Papers at the Alexander Solzhenitsyn House of Russia Abroad); two incomplete German abstracts of Frank’s talk at the Nietzsche Archives and their translation into Russian (repository: 12th box of S.L. Frank Papers at the Bakhmeteff Archives).
The book by G. E. Alyaev summarizes long-term research of the philosophy of S. L. Frank and other Russian thinkers. It contains the articles examine the main features of the heritage of Russian philosophers and the results of archival research. Alyaev’s approach combines the aspects of conceptual analysis, reception history and archive work. The main sections of the book demonstrate the practical implementation of research ideas formulated in the introduction. The integrated methodology allows to avoid endless disputes on the ideological question if the Russian philosophy is “better” or “worse” than the Western one. Alyaev admits that the Russian thought, which often interprets itself as closer to real life than the Western intellectual traditions, explicitly sets the task of developing a national idea, but cannot be reduced to it. Moreover, the connection of the ideas of Russian philosophers to practical and political issues reveals its relevance for current intellectual discussions. Alaev’s reflections are close to the approach demonstrated in the works of E. van der Zweerde, who emphasizes that the national dimension of philosophy should not be opposed to the universal one. However, the methodological aspect of Alaev’s book is not sufficiently discussed and can be fruitfully supplemented by contemporary approaches of intellectual history.
At the very core of Frank's perception of culture here is the primary 1-You relation. On the one hand, it separates the culture from the world of distinct things in which there are the subject-object connections; on the other hand, it transfers the researcher's position inside the space of culture. An art is the most pure manifestation of culture, which turns to be the model of pure existence, not divided into different subjects and therefore perceived by intuition. The culture for Frank is not an object to be contemplated but the very type of relationship of man and reality.