Сравнительная оценка эффективности участия стран G20, БРИКС и НИС в глобальных цепочках добавленной стоимости
The article performs a comparative analysis of the efficiency of G20, BRICS and NIC member countries’ participation in global value chains (GVC) taking into account economic growth, investment activity, global competitiveness and productivity in the period from 2000 to 2009. Efficiency is evaluated by means of the method of data envelopment analysis under constant and variable returns of scale assumptions. The comparison of the efficiency of developed and developing countries participation in GVCs is made, the leaders and outsiders in using the GVCs’ potential are revealed. For the latter the target values of the input and output parameters allowing to reach the efficiency frontier are indicated.
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models and Free Disposal Hull (FDH) models were proposed almost simultaneously in the scientific literature. In DEA models, the constraints generate a convex set. For this reason, optimization methods and software are widely used for modeling and computations for these models. Non-convexity of production possibility set of FDH models refrained significantly the development of these models. In this paper, two methods are proposed for two-and three-dimensional frontier visualization for DEA and FDH models. Computational experiments using real-life datasets documented reliability and effectiveness of proposed methods.
Contemporary research of different international organizations such as OECD, WTO and UNCTAD concentrate more on global value chains (GVCs) analysis. The article is devoted to reasons for rising fragmentation of production in the world economy and forms of participation in GVCs, which are chosen by countries. The article demonstrates theoretical framework for various forms of integration of countries into GVCs. Furthermore, the authors present retrospective and comparative analysis of several countries' economic development within GVCs.
The objective of this paper is to analyse the scope for improving empirical and methodological foundation of global value chains (GVCs) research and for making relevant political decisions, primarily through application of foresight methodology. The authors review major trends of global value chains’ development, specific features of Russia’s participation in them, and the necessary steps to increase the quality and efficiency of this participation, in particular in the changing geopolitical context. Special attention was paid to theoretical, methodological, and empirical aspects of GVC research which are far from being adequate (primarily we mean international databases such as TiVA and WIOD developed with participation of the OECD and the WTO): they need to be supplemented with advanced tools to improve their forecasting potential, and practical and strategic orientation. To this end, approaches which would make it possible to research interconnection between global processes and trends with regional and national innovation-based development tendencies become of crucial importance. Application of foresight methodology may significantly contribute to researching the GVC phenomenon, being a major logical step towards creating advanced research and policy tools to mobilise available resources and coordinate stakeholders’ actions to increase global competitiveness. The paper presents a number of case studies which describe practical application of foresight methodology to analyse Russian participation in various GVCs, by the examples of specific product and service group. The authors conclude that both full-scale foresight studies and specific components thereof could be applied for the purposes of GVC analysis, strategic planning and making political decisions.
In this paper we describe the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) research design and its applications for effectiveness evaluation of company marketing strategies. We argue that DEA is an efficient instrument for use in academia and industry to compare a company’s business performance with its competitors’. This comparison provides the company with information on the closest competitors, including evaluating strategies with similar costs, but more efficient outcomes (sales). Furthermore, DEA provides suggestions on the optimal marketing mix to achieve superior performance.
In this paper we provide the methodology for evaluating ef- fectiveness of international sanctions using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which we use for generating the network matrix for further anal- ysis. DEA is a non-parametric technique used to compare performance of similar units, such as departments or organizations. DEA has wide applications in all industries, and has been successfully used to compare performance of hospitals, banks, universities, etc. The most important advantage of this technique is that it can handle multiple input and out- put variables, even those not generally comparable to each other. We use the ”Threat and Imposition of Sanctions (TIES)” Data 4.0 for analysis. This database contains the largest number of cases of international sanctions (1412 from the years 1945-2005) imposed by some countries on others, takes into account simultaneous sanction imposition, and also estimates the cost of all sanctions - both for those who receive and those who impose them. As input variables for DEA model we use the impact of sender commitment, anticipated target and sender economic costs, and actual target and sender economic costs. As the output variable, we use the outcome of sanctions for senders. We describe how to use DEA cross-efficiency outputs to build the network of sanction episodes. Our proposed combination of DEA and network methodology allows us to cluster sanction episodes depending on their outcomes, and provides explanations of higher efficiency of one group of sanction episodes over the others.
This collection of papers is a combined initiative of EPF member think tanks and is the result of two round-table discussions under the Regional Integration research stream. The first event, ‘Drivers of Regional Integration’, took place in Cape Town, 25-27 November 2014; the second, ‘Regional Integration and Regional Value Chains’ was held in Moscow, 21 May 2015.