Transcendentalism as a Special Type of Philosophizing: Kant’s transcendental Shift, Dasein-Analysis of Heidegger and Sachverhalt-Ontology of Wittgenstein
In this article, we attempted to consider Kant’s transcendental philosophy as a special type of philosophizing and foundation of new transcendental paradigm, which differs both from the ‘object’ metaphysics of Antiquity and the ‘subject’ metaphysics of Modern Age (metaphysics of the objects (transcendent metaphysics; meta–physics) — metaphysics of the experience/Erfahrung (transcendental metaphysics) — metaphysics of the subject (immanent metaphysics, meta–psychology). For this purpose, we introduce such new methodological terms as transcendental ‘shift’ (see: [CPR, B25]), transcendental perspective, transcendental ‘gesture’ and transcendental constructivism/pragmatism (see: ‘action of pure thought’ [CPR, B81]). The basis for such representation of transcendentalism is cognitive and semantic reading of the Critics (R. Hanna) in view of the question from Kant`s letter to M. Herz (21/02/1772; see: ‘What is the ground of the relation of that in us which we call “representation” to the object?’) and modern interpretation of Kant: theory of ‘two aspects’ (H. Allison). While in classical metaphysics, cognition is interpreted as a relation between empirical subject and object, in transcendental metaphysics, ‘possible experience/knowledge (Erfahrung)’ shall be understood as a relation between transcendental subject (transcendental unity of apperception) and transcendental object. Upon that, Kant’s transcendentalism, as contrasted to classical contemplative metaphysics, acts as an ‘experimental’ metaphysics, and the ‘transcendentality/ transcendental-ness’ is defined as a boundary ontological area between the immanent and the transcendent in capacity of the instrumental (‘kraft’) component of our consciousness/cognition (see ‘intentional reality’ of E. Husserl and/or theory of ‘three worlds’ of K. Popper). However, Kant considers the subject and the object uncritically, in the substance modus and their transcendental rethinking in existential (Dasein/Existentia; Heidegger) and event-ness (Sachverhalt; Wittgenstein) mode will allow taking a substantial step towards development of transcendental paradigm of philosophy.