Кукла в идеологизированном повествовании испанской республиканской эмиграции: рассказ "Кукла" Сесара М. Арконады
In this article the influence of legal inheritance of the latest Roman law, in particular-roman images of a judge and justice, on the Toledo legal system is analyzed. The author substantiates that the roman legal traditions influenced the Toledo legislation and its implementation to. And she backs up the statements with examples of criminal cases.
The article considers similarities and differences between China's and the Soviet Union's approaches to the post-war international orger.
The paper analyzes how the occupational group of in-house lawyers developed in Poland and Russia during the state-socialist and post-socialist period. These two countries constitute the most contrasting cases of socialist transformation in the region in terms of legal traditions and of the broader socio-political context. The comparative analysis uses the conceptual framework of the sociology of professions. In particular, the modified “actor-based framework for the study of the professions” proposed by Burrage, Jarausch and Siegrist (1990) is used as the main heuristic tool. The analysis summarized in the paper shows that (1) there had been significant discrepancies between the status of the in-house-lawyer occupation in both countries despite the seemingly similar political framework of the state-socialist regime; (2) Polish in-house lawyers were able to establish an integrated system of professional associations as early as at the beginning of the 1980s (3) and to transform it into a full-fledged professional self-regulation system very soon after the collapse of the state socialism; (4) Soviet and later Russian in-house lawyers have remained atomized and never made any serious attempt to create a self-regulating organization; (5) there was a process of partial “advocatization” of legal professionals who practiced in-house during the state-socialist period. The term “advocatization” means a change in the form of professional practice from employment relationship to service-for-fee practice. This process could be observed in both countries, but it took very different forms due to the differences in institutional changes which were described above. The “advocatization” of Polish in-house lawyers took place within the self-regulatory institutions. In the Russian case, it happened in form of individual migrations of practitioners into the Bar which lost control over admission at that time.
There are over thirty million disabled people in Russia and Eastern Europe, yet their voices are rarely heard in scholarly studies of life and well-being in the region. This book brings together new research by internationally recognised local and non-native scholars in a range of countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It covers, historically, the origins of legacies that continue to affect well-being and policy in the region today, discusses disability in culture and society, highlighting the broader conditions that construct disability and in which disabled people must build their identities and well-being, provides in-depth biographical profiles that outline what living with disabilities in the region is like, and examines policy interventions, including international influences, recent reforms and the difficulties of implementing inclusive, community-based care. The book will be of interest both to regional specialists, for whom the problem of declining standards of health and well-being is a crucial concern, and to scholars of disability and social policy internationally
Various forms of dictatorship have been a context in which SBS have been developing through most of the 20th century. Nazi and fascist regimes in Europe, Communist single-party states, military juntas in Latin America and elsewhere in the post-colonial world accompanied the crisis of tradition and development of modernity as an alternative to liberal democracy. Dictatorships have thoroughly affected the history of SBS pursuing a policy of repression and control and, sometimes, encouraging a growth of various social science disciplines. The lack of intellectual and institutional autonomy is generally endured, though to different degrees and in different aspects, by SBS under dictatorship.