Sexual citizenship, nationalism and biopolitics in Putin’s Russia
This chapter explores the relationship between sexuality and nationalism in the Russian context. We consider how restrictions on citizens’ sexual and reproductive rights are justified in the name of the national interest, and how family and demographic policies are deployed in the construction of ideals of nation and national belonging which are both sexualised and gendered.
This book brings together a diverse range of critical interventions in sexuality and gender studies, and seeks to encourage new ways of thinking about the connections and tensions between sexual politics, citizenship and belonging. The book is organized around three interlinked thematic areas, focusing on sexual citizenship, nationalism and international borders (Part 1); sexuality and "race" (Part 2); and sexuality and religion (Part 3). In revisiting notions of sexual citizenship and belonging, contributors engage with topical debates about "sexual nationalism," or the construction of western/European nations as exceptional in terms of attitudes to sexual and gender equality vis-à-vis an uncivilized, racialized "Other."
The collection explores macro-level perspectives by attending to the geopolitical and socio-legal structures within which competing claims to citizenship and belonging are played out; at the same time, micro-level perspectives are utilized to explore the interplay between sexuality and "race," nation, ethnicity and religious identities. Geographically, the collection has a prevalently European focus, yet contributions explore a range of trans-national spatial dimensions that exceed the boundaries of "Europe" and of European nation-states.
The article is a critical survey of the recent biography of German lawyer and political scientist Carl Schmitt written by R. Mehring. The author focuses on the particularity of Mehring's approach to the biography and reveals the characteristic examples which are the evidence of Mehring's outstanding work full of unique historical facts, although he does not create the unified and methodically coherent Schmitt's story of life.
In Putin's third term, official rhetoric has become a normative, moralizing discourse promotng Russian tradtional values as opposed to the "moral decay" of the West. This "biopolitical turn" in Russian politics -- a redefining of the boundaries of the Russian political community and extension of state sovereignty into private lives -- is part of the authortarian drift of the Russian political regime.
Youth are, by definition, the future. This book brings initial analyses to bear on youth in the five BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which are home to nearly half of the world's youth. Very little is known about these youth outside of their own countries since the mainstream views on "youth" and "youth culture" are derived from the available literature on youth in the industrialized West, which is home to a small part of the world's youth. This book aims to help fill in this gap.
The handbook examines the state of youth, their past, present and permits the development of insights about future. The BRICS countries have all engaged in development processes and some remarkable improvements in young people's lives over recent decades are documented. However, the chapters also show that these gains can be undermined by instabilities, poor decisions and external factors in those countries. Periods of economic growth, political progress, cultural opening up and subsequent reversals rearticulate differently in each society. The future of youth is sharply impacted by recent transformations of economic, political and social realities. As new opportunities emerge and the influence of tradition on youth's lifestyles weakens and as their norms and values change, the youth enter into conflict with dominant expectations and power structures.
The topics covered in the book include politics, education, health, employment, leisure, Internet, identities, inequalities and demographics. The chapters provide original insights into the development of the BRICS countries, and place the varied mechanisms of youth development in context. This handbook serves as a reference to those who are interested in having a better understanding of today's youth. Readers will become acquainted with many issues that are faced today by young people and understand that through fertile dialogues and cooperation, youth can play a role in shaping the future of the world.
Autonomism is a relatively new post-Marxist school, which is still developing fruitfully, providing us with critical account of the modern society. Although autonomists ground on Marxist «axiomatics», they are quite successful in elaboration of their own social theory and terminology. In my article I demonstrate the major concepts, coined by autonomists, which became later the basis for autonomists’ theory, and explain the connection between these notions and significant social phenomena of the contemporary epoch, as well as with the traditional categories of social and political philosophy. Introducing these concepts, autonomists not only set some conventional glossary, but also join the dispute with notable social and political philosophers of the past such as Thomas Hobbes, thus showing historicity of these thinkers’ philosophical views as well and with the help of such deep comparisons, clarifying the key aspects of modernity.
Among the negative predictors of sexual freedom, cultural complexity has been always mentioned as most important. However, regression analysis revealed the existence of a reverse trend within the interval between 11 and 22 points of Murdock's cumulative scale of cultural complexity. This suggests that it is senseless to try to find a general set of regularities regarding the correlation between cultural complexity and sexual freedom. One would expect to find different sets of regularities for simple, medium-complexity, complex and supercomplex cultures. In this paper we begin with a summary analysis of research conducted on simple societies, suggesting a model of relationships between cultural complexity and female premarital sexual freedom among foragers. We suggest that the underlying variable in this model is foraging intensification. This intensification appears to be one of the most important preconditions for the significant growth of cultural complexity among the foragers. As shown in the ethnographic record, this intensification mostly occurs through the development of hunting and/or fishing practices (i.e. in most cases predominantly male activities). This tends to lead to a decline in female contribution to subsistence which, in turn, appears to lead to the societal decline of female status. This, the general argument goes, contributes to the decrease of the female premarital sexual freedom. On the other hand, we argue that this is not the only mechanism explaining the negative correlation between cultural complexity and female premarital sexual freedom among foragers. The intensification of a foraging economy tends to lead to the rise of the wealth accumulation, and the growth of cultural complexity components such as the development of a medium of exchange and social stratification. This situation seems to “entice” the development of modes of marriage that involve the transfer of valuables/ services. The growth of social stratification appears to have an independent influence on the decline of female premarital sexual freedom among foragers. The growth of similar components of cultural complexity seems to lead to the development of slavery and polygyny, whereas the combined action of these factors appears to entice what we call "bride commodification" which against the background of declining female status appears, naturally, to lead to the restriction of the female premarital sexual freedom. The growth of such components of cultural complexity as political integration, fixity of settlement and community size seems to contribute to the decline of female premarital sexual freedom through the growth of social control (against the background of declining female status).