Unpacking passion to learn: three facets of intrinsic motivation
Analysis of the history of intrinsic motivation research indicates two different approaches to this concept, a phenomenological approach that is intended to capture the essential aspects of intrinsic motivation and an approach grounded in the concept of basic psychological needs. We hypothesized that intrinsic motivation was not only associated with three basic psychological needs primarily satisfied by the environment (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), but also with three other needs (creation or achievement, knowledge, and self-development) primarily satisfied by the process of intrinsically motivated learning activity itself. We propose a new model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation that includes basic needs satisfied in activity itself and other needs irrelevant to the activity performed (such as needs for self-esteem and respect). Two studies were conducted to test the model with high school students (N= 182) and university students (N= 460). Two questionnaires with different versions for school and university students were developed, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Academic Motivation Scale (partly based on Vallerand et al., 1992) that includes 7 scales, three of which measure different aspects of intrinsic motivation, and Basic Psychological Needs in Learning Scale (Gordeeva, Sychev, Osin, 2013). The results support structural validity (using SEM) and show sufficient internal consistency (alpha coefficients for individual scales range from .68 to .91) of both instruments. All three types of intrinsic motivation were shown to predict psychological well-being (subjective happiness and dispositional optimism), academic achievement, and adaptive learning strategies (negative attitude toward cheating). We interpret the findings based on our model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation grounded in self-determination theory perspective.