Four Russias: Human Potential and Social Differentiation of Russian Regions and Cities
In early 2010 Russia once again entered a turbulent period. From the system of property distribution, to structure of the political elites and relations between the Center and the regions - various spheres of Russian life are in a state of flux. Two major factors are driving this change: oil prices which are unlikely to grow the way they did in the 2000s and the rapidly deteriorating efficiency of governance. Relations between federal and regional elites, as well as public activism, are derived from these two factors and play an important role of their own. Will change take an evolutionary path or is Russia facing another revolution? The book offers a view of the Russian future until 2025 based on thematic scenarios created by an international team of Russia scholars whose expertise range from politics and economics to demographics and foreign policy.
The primary elections of United Russia party serve as a tool for party organization and voter mobilization. In the run-up to the 2016 national legislative elections, the strength of United Russia’s regional political machines was tested in a massive campaign of intra-party elections. This study traces the history United Russia’s primaries in 2007-2011, which allows for arriving at a better understanding of the multiple roles played by quasi-democratic institutions in an authoritarian political context. On the basis of these findings, we employ United Russia’s capacity to mobilize voter turnout in primary elections as an indirect indicator of the strength of party-controlled political machines. Our analysis of the results of the 2016 Duma elections in 83 regions of Russia demonstrates voter turnout in the spring 2016 party primaries of United Russia to a significant extent explain cross-regional variation in party success.
The article constitutes a part of author’s studies on regions and mental geography of the Russian empire. The military actions within own territory normally produce a dramatic and long impact on the spatial imaginations. The Crimean war with its center in newly incorporated New Russia has helped to include this region to the mental maps as the Russian space. The article shows the new symbolic geography formation. It also analyses the efforts of propaganda aimed at maintaining the imperial durability. A special attention is paid to the state militia. The citizen soldiers – nobles and law classes representatives – had the unique opportunity to visit a number of regions. For the inhabitants of Central Russia the border with Little Russia was essential. The perception of Jews has demonstrated xenophobia long before pogroms. Although the authorities had enough reasons to be afraid of separatism, the final conclusion was that the imperial construction is rather healthy. As a result of such a conclusion an elaboration of this construction hasn’t become a part of common program of reforms in Russia. The author used unpublished documents, in particular those preserved in Kiev. The article is a part of the most significant recent international project on the Crimean war. The English translation of the article is published in USA.
Le Rapport annuel sur l’état de la Russie (Yearbook) est notre principal projet éditorial. Il présente l’expertise de l’Observatoire sur un large éventail de thématiques — économie, politique intérieure/société, régions, politique étrangère/défense, relations franco-russes. Réunissant les contributions d’une cinquantaine d’auteurs renommés, il offre une photographie analytique complète et opérationnelle de la Russie d’aujourd’hui. Ouvrage de référence, le Rapport de l’Observatoire est présenté chaque année lors du Forum économique international de St-Pétersbourg (SPIEF) et à l’occasion d’un grand colloque franco-russe à Paris.
In recent years, a new market trading in cryptocurrencies and instruments based on them has been fo rmed. The market of This paper The goal of the study is to analyze the degree of differentiation of the Arctic regions of Russia by the key indicators of socioe conomic development, dependence of their economic development on the raw materials industries, which should be accounted to shape an efficient regional policy by the state and achieve the strategic goals for the reclamation and development of the Russian Arctic zone. The methodology of the study is based on a systematic approach to assessing the socioeconomic and sectoral differentiation of the Arctic regions of Russia. A set of general scientific and special research methods was used. The conducted analysis indicates that all the Arctic regions under study have a narrow raw materials nature of the economy, the sectoral structure is poorly differentiated. The policy of equalizing the per capita income and the cost of living in the Arctic regions with other regions of Russia largely determined the outflo w of population from the northern regions. The state regional policy in relation to the Arctic regions should take into account their heterogeneity in order to achieve the results outlined in the strategic documents
Less than a decade since its official introduction, smart specialization, which guides the selection of priorities for innovative development, has proven to be a far-reaching academic idea and political instrument. In the European Union, smart specialization is mentioned among ex ante conditions for receiving subsidies from European structural and investment funds. Its core principles are considered in innovation strategies in Australia, South Korea, and some countries of Latin America. In Russia, smart specialization is also being introduced in the agenda of policymakers.
The paper seeks to reveal which levels of governance should be involved in the design of a smart specialization strategy and which factors should be the focus of attention when using this approach. The research is based upon an analysis of the innovation strategies of seven Russian regions, conducted with the adapted RIS3 Self-Assessment Wheel.
The results of the study empirically confirm that most principles of smart specialization are considered, at least formally, in the traditional innovation strategies of Russian regions. At the same time, without common rules for the selection, verification, and synchronization of innovative priorities as well as a single analytical database, organizational support, and expertise, even regions considered strong innovators fail to find their smart specialization.