Экономические диспропорции развития российских регионов и муниципалитетов: масштабы, динамика, возможности сокращения
In this paper we study convergence among Russian regions. We find that while there was no convergence in 1990s, the situation changed dramatically in 2000s. While interregional GDP per capita gaps still persist, the differentials in incomes and wages decreased substantially. We show that fiscal redistribution did not play a major role in convergence. We therefore try to understand the phenomenon of recent convergence using panel data on the interregional reallocation of capital and labor. We find that capital market in Russian regions is integrated in a sense that local investment does not depend on local savings. We also show that economic growth and financial development has substantially decreased the barriers to labor mobility. We find that in 1990s many poor Russian regions were in a poverty trap: potential workers wanted to leave those regions but could not afford to finance the move. In 2000s (especially in late 2000s), these barriers were no longer binding. Overall economic development allowed even poorest Russian regions to grow out of the poverty traps. This resulted in convergence in Russian labor market; the interregional gaps in incomes, wages and unemployment rates are now below those in Europe. The results imply that economic growth and development of financial and real estate markets eventually result in interregional convergence.
GRP and environmental pollution in the Russian regions: spatial econometric analysis
The paper provides empirical estimation of the relationship between per capita income and per capita pollutant emissions in Russian regions taking into account their spatial interdependence. I show that the pollutant emissions in the Russian regions are spatially autocorrelated. The estimation results confirm an inverted U-shaped relationship between per capita income and per capita polution at the regional level. The estimates of the income turning point suggest that most Russian regions are on an increasing part of the environmental Kuznets curve, i.e., an increase in GRP is associated with higher pollution levels.
Nowadays the question of interregional comparison in case of innovation development and identification of causes of differentiation between the Russian regions in this aspect has very high priority. The section devoted to publication activity is one of the crucial parts of different innovation ratings and scoreboards. Publication activity is very significant factor which prepares ground for innovations on regional and country levels. Also publication activity has a special value because it is used as one of the important criteria for government investments in this sphere, which as is well known not always have very high effectiveness. Today there is the necessity of creation of special rating which will be focused primary on publication activity of the Russian regions. So this article is devoted to this theme. The indicators of publication activity for 79 Russian regions in the period from 2010 to 2015 were gathered and analyzed in order to achieve the main aim of this article. The largest electronic library in Russia (eLIBRARY) was used as the main source of specific information. The rating of publication activity is based on 2 sections: “size of region” and ”quality of publications”. It was done in order to take into account not only quantitative, but also qualitative indexes. This approach makes it possible to analyze aggregate publication activity of regions which is one of the important factors to estimate innovation potentials of regions. Previous ratings were mainly concentrated on publication activity of HEIs and separate scientists. Moreover this methodology gives additional understanding of regional innovation processes and creates opportunities to monitor and evaluate local governments’ actions in stimulating of innovation development in regions.
This paper explores age-specific migration flows between regions of Russia. Using age-disaggregated data of the Russian Census 2010, we cluster interregional migration flows based on prevailing age-groups of migrants, analyse diversity and similarity in the choice of age-specific migration destinations and describe general socio-economic characteristics of these flows. It is for the first time that the relationship between migration and migrants’ age and life-cycle events is analysed in the Russian context. Similar to migrants in other countries, migrants in Russia choose the place of residence depending on their age. Migration flows which differ by dominating age group of migrants quite often have opposite destinations, because motivations of migration also differ. Migration follows various stages of the life-cycle: people are born in one region, study in another region, go to work in a different region, and resettle to another place after retirement. Migration modeling turns to be complicated if the impact of age factor is ignored. Therefore, the age of migrants should be considered when analyzing, modeling and interpreting interregional migration in Russia.