Eunomia, isonomia и demokratia в Афинах
The article deals with fundamental political notions in which reflected the crucial stages of the polis evolution.
This article is about historiography. The main point of it is to show the influence of Mitford’s political views on content of his work. The range of different typical stories from Athens history of V-th century BC were considered, for example struggle of two political forces of that time, which Mitford named “aristoctatical party ” and “democratical party ”. We could say that English historian extrapolates the political system of his day Britain at that time Athens. Therefore Mitford didn’t disguise his sympathies to aristocrat Kimon’s politicalforce, because he was torie. Foreign policy of Athens was also considered in this article, especially creation of Delian League and its ambitions, which were supported by Mitford, because Britain had already started new phase of their colonization.
The article is a historiographical and theoretical overview of the basic concepts of the genesis of ancient Greek philosophy in the Russian and Soviet philosophical literature 19–20th centuries. The author recalls that the first information about the ancient world appeared in Russia in the 10th century, and indicates the scientific study of ancient Greek philosophy in Russia began only in the 19th century. One of the first original research in this area belonged to the O. Novitsky. He put forward the idea of the development of Greek philosophy from mythology and religion. This concept was developed to creatively S. Trubetskoy. He argued that the philosophy of the Greeks is a special phase of their religious ideas.
The class approach has dominated in the Soviet history of philosophy, and it required to consider the philosophy of the ancient Greeks as a direct reflection of the contemporary level of development of the productive forces. Concepts of philosophy genesis conformed with the requirements of the political situation. Thus, the epistemogeneous concept corresponded to the Communist Party course to struggle against religious vestiges in Soviet society and apologetics myth in a bourgeois political thought. According to this concept philosophy arose from science as opposed to religion and the fight against it. And hypothesis of oriental responsible policy of rapprochement with the countries of the Third World and criticism of eurocentrism. This concept is emphasized oriental influences on Greek philosophy.
In the late 1950s – early 1960s, there is a number of original concepts, operating Marxist methodology as a lively and plastic material. One of the greatest historians of philosophy was A.F. Losev, who created a distinctive methodology for the study of the genesis of philosophy. Interesting theory offered J.E. Golosovker, A.N. Chanyshev, F.C. Kessidy and other scientists. Philosophical debates have become more vivid character and the theoretical value.
The author emphasizes that the conflicting approaches to the problem of the origin of ancient Greek philosophy are attempts to answer the questions of profound character. The debate between supporters of autochthonous and Oriental hypotheses about external sources of Greek philosophy is designed to answer the question: “how and where philosophy emerged?” The question “from what is philosophy emerged?” defined the content of the controversy between the adherents mythogeneous and epistemogeneous concepts concerning the spiritual sources of philosophy. And finally, the question of “how and why philosophy emerged?” accompanied by discussions about social, ontological and other conditions of the emergence of philosophy.
The author argues that the last point in this debate is unlikely to be delivered, because to find the solution to the problem of the genesis of philosophy – it is important to solve the question of philosophy: what is philosophy?
Articles devotes to the conflict betwee Athens and Peloponnesian League headed by Sparta. It will open the way to the war between Athens and Sparta.
Modern scholars study different types of time (mythological, philosophical, literary, astronomical) in Ancient Greek heritage according to the disciplinary principle. Nevertheless, such approach is determined by contemporary situation and not by the factual condition of intellectual sphere of Ancient Greece. The author tries to define some specific features of Greek understanding of temporality and elaborates a theme, which shows the rootedness of ancient Greek philosophy of time in a broader intellectual context.
Before the Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 B.C.) the so – called First Peloponnesian War (460 – 446 B.C.) took place. The Athenians break its relations with Sparta and entered into alliance Argos. But Spartan inactivity and (even) the policy of non – interference made itself conspicuous during this war. Perhaps that is why the pitched battles of the Lacedemonians with the Athenians were not frequent (Oinoe in 460 B.C., Tanagra and rather strange Spartan invasion in Attica in 446 B.C.). Thus, for the Spartans, we think (as distinct from the Athenians perhaps), the First Peloponnesian War was not the rehearsal of future Peloponnesian War.