Displacement of habitants in Moscow urban space and the perception of unwanted neighbors: social exclusion framework
Analysis of social exclusion in city space.
Internаtional Sociological Association, Working Group on Local and Global Relations (WG 01)
This chapter explores changes in the relationship between social inequality and the use of childcare arrangements in Russia between 1994 and 2012. These changes are evaluated against changes in the context surrounding the system of childcare provision throughout the post-Soviet period. In particular, we consider the following changes: increasing household competition for state-subsidized childcare provision and its differentiation, the adoption of neo-familialist social policies in the 2000s, and the growing relevance of informal relations in securing access to formal childcare services. To empirically investigate the changes in the use of childcare arrangements by different types of families we rely on data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (1994–2012). We find that families with higher social standing are more likely to participate in formal public childcare, although inequality in access has slightly decreased in the 2000s. On the other hand, inequality increased with regard to expenditure on external childcare, which suggests that more advantaged families switched to different forms of childcare. This is partly corroborated by the fact that these families use formal public childcare less intensively, possibly by exposing their children to other types of childcare. Social inequalities also exist in informal childcare arrangements; whereas more advantaged families generally make wider use of these arrangements, they are less likely to limit themselves to exclusive parental care, which is more widely spread in the less advantaged families. The patterns of informal childcare remained largely unchanged throughout the period considered.
The difficult economic conditions that characterized the economic sphere of the country's life for the last few years have once again actualized the problems of assessing the well-being of the population, not only objective, but also subjective. This article is devoted to defining the boundaries and revealing the characteristics of subjective well-being and ill-being in modern Russian society. On the basis of the all-Russian representative sociological survey conducted in 2018 by the Institute of Sociology of the FCTAS RAS, by cluster analysis zones of subjective well-being and subjective ill-being are identified, as well as an intermediate zone. It is shown that the zone of subjective well-being is smaller today than the zone of subjective ill-being; its representatives are characterized by high assessments of all aspects of their lives, including those not related to income and consumption, while subjective ill-being is reflected in a pronounced dissatisfaction with material situation and leisure and holiday opportunities, as well as with satisfactory assessments of other aspects of life. The zone of subjective ill-being is formed not only and even not so much by low incomes, but due to the problems that its representatives face in their daily lives and which they are not able to solve on their own. Differences in the situation of Russians from the two polar zones lead to a differentiation of their requests for social policy, which, however, is reflected mostly not in the divergence of their priorities in this respect, but in the intensity of the request. The key areas in which the entire population expects assistance from the state today is the provision of fair wages and the establishment of the health care system. The specifics of the situation of the selected groups indicates that without resolving these problems, the zone of subjective ill-fortune is unlikely to decline even in the context of rising population incomes. As far as their localization is concerned, the zone of ill-being is shifted to the rural areas, the older populations and the manual labor, while the zone of well-being is localized today in the young urban "middle class".
This introduction aims to present the general outline of the special issue and to elaborate on the context against which most of the studies were conducted. We discuss the political, economic, social, and historical processes that contribute to shape Russia; this helps to understand local activism and protest in contemporary Russia. Since this context is relevant to all the papers, the readers would benefit from reading this introduction first. The second part of this paper introduces the contribution that the special issue makes to the study of activism and politics, with papers analyzing different aspects and kinds of activism in a variety of circumstances and settings. A central question common to all papers is the problem of politicization which is treated at the intersection between social and political inequalities, the experience of everyday life and political imagination.
The concept of social inequality, its nature and forms.
From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious ‘eduLIFE Lifelong Learning Series’ provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling, examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment.
Models of Secondary Education and Social Inequality brings together a number of cross-national and country studies conducted by well-known experts in the field. In contrast to existing empirical research, this book reconstructs individuals’ educational careers step-by-step, providing a longitudinal perspective essential for an appropriate understanding of the dynamics of inequalities in secondary education. The international viewpoint allows for an illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.
This book will be of great interest to policymakers, researchers and professional experts in the field, including sociologists, pedagogues, international political scientists and economists, and also serves as a major text for postgraduate and postdoctoral courses.
From the moment when wide spread of large scale assessments in sociology and economics began, the most commonly used indicators of peoples’ qualifications are the number of years spent in education and the possession of a high school/college/university diploma. But what if these formal indicators are unreliable under certain conditions and do not reflect actual literacy and competency of people? This article, drawing on data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), questions accuracy of the basic educational indicators in Russia. There is a linear relationship between the possession of a formal graduation diploma and the measurement of PIAAC literacy of the able-bodied population in OECD countries, including the Eastern European ones. However, the analysis shows that in Russia there is an inconsistency between literacy and formal educational status. This fact in itself casts doubt on the effectiveness of formal education indicators in Russia. The social implications resulting from this inconsistency become apparent through an international comparison of research results. These ill effects have been documented in the areas of employment, education and social reproduction and in the social self-awareness of the Russian people.