Повседневные практики древнерусских переписчиков книг и датировка Остромирова Евангелия
Russia’s Skinheads: exploring and rethinking subcultural lives provides a through examination of the phenomenon of skinheads, explaining its nature and its significance, and assessing how far Russian skinhead subculture is at the “lumpen” end of the extreme nationalist ideological spectrum. There are large numbers of skinheads in Russia, responsible for a significant number of xenophobic attacks, including 97 deaths in 2008 alone, making this book relevant to Russian specialists as well as to sociologists of youth subculture. It provides a practical example of how to investigate youth subculture in depth over an extended period – in this case through empirical research following a specific group over six years – and goes on to argue that Russian skinhead subculture is not a direct import from the West, and that youth cultural practices should not be reduced to expressions of consumer choice. It presents an understanding of the Russian skinheads as a product of individuals` whole, and evolving, lives, and thereby compels sociologists to rethink how they conceive the nature of subcultures.
Understanding of ethnicity as socially designed marker of distinctions, which organizes and explains character of social interactions is presented in the article. Constructing assumes process of a categorization and attributing of senses to observable signs, their fixing as an ethnicity. At the same time, the theoretical concept of ethnicity isn't strictly built. There are difficulties with a clear understanding of criteria of effectiveness of ethnicity as social construct. Search and analysis of the mechanisms underlying activation of social nature of ethnicity are important. Allocation of social fields and the practices in which ethnicity is used as social construct are also important. Possible solution of the problem of operationalization of ethnicity as a social construct is offered in the article, and also social fields in which construct functions are shown.
The diverse and contested nature of the contemporary skinhead scene makes it impossible to identify a single common body regime, or set of gender norms, characteristic of the skinhead (sub)culture. This chapter explores one example of how these fraternal bonds and spaces are constituted. It pays particular attention to practices of the body (individual and collective) within the group and how these practices were enacted to confirm its skinhead identity while shaping a particular regime of closeness and intimacy. It considers, firstly, the group as a particular form of fraternity based on homosocial bonds of friendship, closeness and (dis)trust. Secondly, the aesthetics and the ethics of intimacy within the group are discussed. In particular practices of displaying the – naked and bare – body of the skinhead are considered as well as tests of, and conflicts over, the meaning of the intimacies that these practices forge. Finally, the chapter explores these practices in the context of the wider and competing masculinities through which they are enacted.
In the article there is the methodology of the dating detection in chronological messages. Traditional ways of calendar dates’ treatment couldn’t give the opportunity to distinguish September dates from March and Ultramarch ones. At the same time the usage of Russian September style in XI—XV centuries is proved there.