Berlin debates: the Jews and the Russian Revolution
This chapter analyzes the inflamed political debates that took place among prominent Jewish publicists in Weimar Berlin. The "Berlin debates" articulated the tragic dilemma of the Jews as being simultaneously the subjects and the victims of the Russian Revolution.
This volume presents a series of essays from leading international scholars that expand our understanding of the Russian Revolution through the detailed study of specific localities. Answering the important question of how locality affected the revolutionary experience, these essays provide regional snapshots from across Russia that highlight important themes of the revolution. Drawing on new empirical research from local archives, the authors contribute to the larger historiographic debates on the social and political meaning of the Russian revolution as well as the nature of the Russian state. Russia’s Revolution in Regional Perspective highlights several important themes of the period that are reflected in this volume: a multitudinal state, the fluidity of party politics, the importance of violence as an historical agent, individual experiences, and the importance of economics and social forces. We reconceptualize developments in Russia between 1914 and 1922 as a kaleidoscopic process whose dynamic was not solely determined in the capitals.
Seit Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts, vor allem aber seit Anfang der 1920er Jahre war Berlin für Juden aus Osteuropa Zuflucht und Zwischenstation. Die deutsche Metropole wurde eines der größten Migrationszentren in Europa. Die jüdischen Einwanderer aus Osteuropa waren zumeist Kriegs-, Pogrom- und Revolutionsflüchtlinge. Sie unterschieden sich nach Sozialstatus ebenso wie nach kulturellen und politischen Optionen. Verbunden waren sie jedoch durch Erinnerungen an das, was sie erlebt und zurückgelassen hatten. Viele der Migranten lebten im Scheunenviertel, andere im bürgerlichen Charlottenburg, das aufgrund des hohen russischen Anteils der Bevölkerung auch Charlottengrad genannt wurde. Das erlebte Leid und die Erfahrungen in der Fremde trennten die Flüchtlinge von der deutschen Gesellschaft. Gleichzeitig kam es aber - vor allem in Kreisen der Arbeiterbewegung und der Literaturavantgarde - zu Verflechtungen und Wechselwirkungen west- und osteuropäischer Einflüsse. Die Einwanderer machten Berlin zu einem Zentrum jüdischer Kultur und waren zugleich Teil der multikulturellen Stadtlandschaft. Ihre Erfahrungen, Weltwahrnehmungen und Überlebensstrategien in der Großstadt stehen im Mittelpunkt des Bandes. Etwa die Hälfte der Beiträge ist in englischer Sprache verfasst.
Based on extensive collection of interviews with Soviet, mostly - Ukrainian, - Jews born before the World War II, the essay examines the problem of religious observance and attitudes to it before and after the war concentrating on the circumcision, the first rite of passage, primal in Judaism and exceedingly dangerous during the Holocaust.
Since the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union the historiography of revolutionary Russia has developed a distinct provincial turn. The opening of Soviet central and provincial archives provided new research opportunities to historians. Numerous articles and volumes focusing on Russia’s provinces have since appeared on both sides of the former Soviet border, and the historiography of the Russian revolution matured with an accelerated speed to account for multiple local variables. The understanding of multiplicity of local experiences profoundly changed and challenged the historical interpretations of the crisis that played out in Russia from 1917 to 1921. The article discusses the variety of local revolutionary experiences as they are revealed in recent historiography, but also focuses on some larger themes and issues where this regional perspective provides new insights and affects the general understanding of the Russian revolution. In particular, it discusses the factors contributing to the disintegration and reconstruction of the state, including the patterns and meaning of power in a provincial context, mechanisms of popular mobilization in the civil-war period including in Russia’s non-Russian regions, as well as transition to peace.
The chapter examines Russian Jews’ participation in Russian political parties as a consequence of their integration into Russian society, and the role of the Jews in various political parties in late XIX – early XX centuries, from social-democrats to cadets.
This article considers the evolution of the Russian university system during the First World War. Most of the imperial period, until the end of 1916, thanks to the liberal policy of the Minister of People’s Education, Pavel Nikolayevič Ignat’ev, a reformist course was implemented (drafting of a new statute, increasing the autonomy of universities). Particularly important and promising was the expansion of universities’ network and opening of new universities in Rostov-on-Don, Perm, as well as the expansion of Saratov and Tomsk universities. In 1917 Ministers of Education of the Provisional Government (A. Manuilov, S. Oldenburg, S. Salazkin) also followed the Ignat’ev’s liberal course received support with the bottom-up initiatives (introduction of regular institution of associate professors, attracting of younger lecturers to the university management). Paradoxically, for the university system the result of crisis which lasted through the war period and the beginning of the revolution marked the democratization of management and the expansion of the students’ enrollment and the number of universities.