Архитектура сталинской эпохи и архитектурные движения в Японии середины ХХ века: По материалам журнала «Кокусай кэнтику» («Интернациональная архитектура»)
The increasing influence of international starchitects on the urbanscapes worldwide has been the subject of academic research from perspectives of urban economies (Nueno and Reutskaya, 2009), globalization process Adam (2008) and urban identity (Ponzini, 2012; Klingman, 2007). The long-lasting legacy and positive impact of the Guggenheim museum or the Sidney Opera on their hosting cities continue to fuel academic discussions on the strategic use of architecture as an urban catalyst for social and economic transformation.
Japanese architects usually play a starring role in creating singular landmarks in world cities, stating a disruptive approach to urban architecture combining their unique simplicity and futuristic style. Their unorthodox attitude to deal with form, scape, and technology attracts worldwide attraction and never goes unnoticed rating from ‘mesmerizing’ to ‘ridiculous’. Working in non-Japan cities they deal not only with other construction culture but with a different climate, cityscape, history, even with a different attitude to color, form or sound. Otherwise, they inevitably interpolate their Japanese attitude into this different context.
While most European cities have singular buildings of Japanese artists, there are just a few examples of the Japanese architecture in Madrid. These projects were developed in three different fields: commercial, cultural and social. A thematic floor of the Madrid 5 star hotel by Arata Isozaki (2004), a public garden project by Toyo Ito (2004) and a conference venue by Shigeru Ban (2013) are examples covered by the research. Besides, an unbuilt project for 'Expansion and re-planning of Prado Museum Competition’ made by Arata Isozaki in 1995 is also to be reviewed. Qualitative research methods are used for gathering information and relevant insights.
This paper focuses on the analysis of the initial purpose, real evolution, perceptions and implications of these unique samples of Japanese architectural and design thinking on the Madrid urbanscape.
Changchun as a modern city grew during the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway and South Manchurian Railway. The article discusses the interaction and interpenetration of different cultures on the example of the architectural development of the city of Changchun from the late 19th to the first half of the 20th century. This period encompasses two key stages of urban development: the initial period and the period of the South Manchurian Railway. The article gives examples of the most typical samples of the architectural style of the period. The study of the development of architecture in Changchun City and its comparison with other major cities (Shenyang and Harbin) of Northeast China of that time shows that in the process of development Changchun city has changed its architectural style. This occurred under the influence of traditional Chinese, Russian, and later — Japanese architecture.
The article tells about people who stood out and voted against the so-called “bloc of Communists and non-Party people” at elections in the late Stalin period. Most of the people viewed the hard hungry life and unbearable living conditions of the early postwar years as a transitory phenomenon; the mythological notions of the USSR as the world’s most progressive country, instilled by propaganda, were more important to them. These people went to the polls en masse and demonstrated their loyalty tothe Soviet government. Only a few of them droppedout of the “magic circle” of Stalinist propaganda. They did not believe the government and did not want to live on promises of a bright future: present- day sorrows and joys were more important to them than good words. There were few of them. In the rare inscriptions they left on ballot papers they demonstrated their understanding of the fact that elections were just a sham and that there was no democracy in the country. People were aware of the consequences such actions might have, and yet this happened. The study has been conducted within theframework of the program of fundamental research at the National Research University “Higher School of Economics.”
In the 20th century Japanese house has undergone a tremendous metamorphosis transforming from established vernacular typology to a vast range of different architectural approaches. This process took form of complex interaction between Japanese vernacular and new western dwelling. The purpose of this research is to identify the origins for the space organisation of contemporary Japanese house. This has been done by examining three houses of architects A. Raymond (1926), K. Tsuchiura (1935), and R. Maekawa (1942) with a focus on correlation between architectural space and social meaning of dwelling space in Japanese tradition.