Трансформация традиционной переписи населения и новые технологии: зарубежный опыт
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
The number of countries providing census via Internet is growing. Some of them achieved outstanding results in the 2010 census round, the other countries are in the beginning of this way. This paper is the first attempt to generalize accumulated international experience in this field and to emphasize on the necessity of such experiments in Russia. Meanwhile, an Internet option raises some difficulties and new challenges for planning, organization and administration of population and housing censuses.
The Higher Education and universities have high impact for regional development and youth migration. We suggest what the migration of people with a high level of knowledge (called “brain drain”) is detrimental for the region of emigration. High level universities attract the best students and growth the brain drain. There are close relationships between neighboring regions. Distance can be understood as a barrier of human capital growth. Geographical distance between parental home and college poses a potential barrier to higher education entry, and could be a deciding factor when choosing between institutions. Similar issues potentially arise when considering who goes to which universities, because students with different backgrounds and abilities choose different types and qualities of universities, and the spatial distribution of both university types and student characteristics is not uniform. But at the same time there are the researches which don’t find the impact of distance to accessibility of higher education. The distance a pupil lives from their nearest university has little effect on the likelihood that they go to university. There are many articles describe the social Neighborhood Effects of universities. But the question about geography and place is too often overlooked. The paper of Cullinan and Duggan presents a gravity model of student migration flows to HEIs in Ireland. Their analysis suggests that while geography plays a very important role in explaining student flows. Available studies about student migration cover the territory of England, Ireland, Romania, Poland, US, Canada etc. But we don’t have the works which explain the spatial effect of Russian universities to youth migration. In this article we observe the example of Kazan federal university and her spatial effect to educational migration. The case of Kazan federal university is very important. It’s a one of ten federal university of Russia. More of 30.000 students study in university, 80% of them is from Volga Federal district. The study allowed to find the neighbors of the first and second order, who are influenced by a strong neighbor.
This article discusses spatial changes in the ethnic territories of Native Siberians from the late nineteenth century to the early twenty-first century. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed to model and observe these changes. The GIS also features resource-oriented economic activities, major waterways and railroads. Analysis of the model, textual sources and statistical data made it possible to determine what factors constituted Siberia’s ethnographical pattern of the early twentieth century and led to its changes in the ensuing decades and what impact on the indigenous peoples these changes had. Four special maps showing Siberia in the 1900s–10s, 1930s–40s, 1970s–80s and 2000s–10s were produced from the GIS and are included in the article. The current legal status of the indigenous peoples’ territories was also examined. This article presents an interdisciplinary macroscale case study.
The theme of the Conference Proceedings is aimed at solving one of the urgent problems of modern science — the creation and use of GIS as an effective tool for creation models of sustainable development of territories. The widespread use of information technologies is recommended for all countries on the Agenda of the 21st century, adopted at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1992 and confirmed at the same conference in Johannesburg (South Africa, 2002). In the framework of the task for 23 years the conference InterCarto. InterGIS is held, dedicated GIS for sustainable development of territories. This series is the only annual international conference held in Russia in this field. This series of conferences is held in the framework of the International Cartographic Association (ICA), which brings together 83 countries, and also the Center of World Data System for Geography. The conference themes are often consistent with one of the commissions of the International Geographical Union.
The Baikal region in Siberia had long been a zone of interactions between various European, Asian and global actors. Numerous relational spaces which were produced by the interactions were reconstructed in a geographic information system (GIS) and analysed jointly. The fall of the Qing and Russian empires resulted in energetic attempts to redraw administrative and international boundaries. Between 1917 and 1919 several disentanglement projects were developed and implemented by different actors, including indigenous intellectuals and Buddhist monks. These were the Buryat Autonomy proclaimed in 1917; the Buddhist theocracy created by a dissident Buddhist monk Lubsan Samdan Tsydenov; and the pan-Mongolian federation of Inner, Outer, Hulunbuir and Buryat Mongolia supported by Japanese officers and a regional Cossack leader Grigory Semenov. Each project underlined a certain group identity and claimed particular relational spaces. The article explored how the conflicts between overlapping identities were resolved, and why all three projects failed.