Проблема реформирования верхней палаты Парламента в политических стратегиях консерваторов и лейбористов в 1970-х гг.
The article is devoted to the problem of development and practical implementation of the large scale constitutional modernization program in the Great Britain. Central attention is paid to two of its aspects transfer of some powers from the center to the regional organs within the devolution program, as well as the reform of the House of Lords. The author analyzes a complex of various causes, which resulted in the need to correct a constitutional legal mechanism of the United Kingdom, he also provides the analysis of attitude of the key political parties, inner groups within such parties and movements to these changes. The author also studies the history of representation of the regions of the state in the higher chamber of the British Parliament, the changes which already took place and the perspectives and directions for the further modernization of the state government mechanism. The close connection and interdependence of the changes is being noted. The growing regionalization demands formation of the new type of relations with the central government, and it makes the problem of revision of principles of formation and powers of the higher chamber of the Parliament especially topical, it also requires correction of an election system. Ключевые слова: Великобритания, конституционные реформы, Палата лордов, деволюция, регионализация, национа- лизм, политическая борьба, консерваторы, лейбористы, представительство.
The article comprehends the reasons and nature of the evolution of the British Conservative policy towards Brexit, outlines possible ways of changing the political discourse.
First two volumes of the anthology “Conservators of Russia” present a unique collection of spiritual-philosophical and historical-political texts belonging to those who have been creating and safekeeping Russia during the first eight centuries of its Christian history. It is not self-evident to place these thinkers into category of “the conservatives” since the classic domestic conservatism conventionally emerged not earlier than in 19th century. Conceptual introductions to both volumes give us opportunity to overcome the difficulty, which is rather an issue of methodology than chronology. For the period of 11th-17th centuries, the idea of safekeeping Russian statehood as the only independent stronghold of Orthodoxy acquired a clearly conservative meaning. In the 18th century, the idea of self-sufficient Empire comes to the fore and gives rise to “a new… conservatism.” Three dots in this author’s formula emphasize the fact that in the 18th century, there was not so much conservatism as such, but rather a search for its new forms dominated.