Мультипликатор Леонтьева в модели глобального равновесия кейнсианского типа
A model of global equilibtium based on Keynesian and Leontief's multioplier concepts is suggested.
According to current international climate change regime countries are responsible for greenhouse gas emissions, which result from economic activities within national borders, including emissions from producing goods for exports. At the same time imports of carbon intensive goods are not regulated by international agreements.
In this paper carbon emissions embodied in exports and imports of Russia were calculated with the use of inter-country input-output tables from WIOD database. It was revealed that Russia is the second largest exporter of emissions embodied in trade and the large portion of these emissions is directed to developed countries. The reasons for high carbon intensity of Russia’s exports are obsolete technologies (in comparison to developed economies) and the structure of commodity trade: Russian exports primarily fossil fuels and energy-intensive goods and imports products with relatively low energy intensity.
Because of large amount of net exports of carbon intensive goods the current approach to emissions accounting does not suit interests of Russia. On the one hand, Russia, as well as other large net emissions exporters, is interested in the revision of allocation of responsibility between producers and consumers of carbon intensive products. On the other hand, current technological backwardness makes Russia vulnerable to the policy of “carbon protectionism”, which can be implemented by its trade partners.
or many years, scientists and researchers have analyzed the economy in the case of production, the resources and results of production. We have traditional factors of production (land, capital and labor) and other resources; we influence and achieve something new. However, the results of production can be vastly different from time to time, even when the same resources are being used – why? The answer is people who create, use and implement. We cannot find two absolutely identical persons, thus, the thoughts, the behavior and style of management are also different. Why Russia having a huge land, different natural resources, financial capital, and labor force is still developing country? Why China and India reach such a significant growth having a bulk of non‐educated people? Why Japan and Great Britain are still so powerful in economic reality? It could be explain by economic cycle or environmental changes. But the reality is not so difficult and not so easy. This is something that is hidden from our eyes and no so obvious – something that is concealed in “a black box”. In this paper, we are going to look at not only the process of production but also try to find specific aspects which can help us to create something new and reach new aims. This paper has a theoretical vector to find several ideas how to open a “black box” of Intellectual capital. And next, we are going to test our hypothesis providing the empirical evidences.
According to the current international climate change regime, countries are responsible for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that result from economic activities within their national borders, including emissions from producing goods for export. At the same time, imports of carbon-intensive goods are not addressed by international agreements, including the Paris Agreement that was adopted in 2015. This paper examines emissions embodied in Russia’s exports and imports based on the results of an input-output analysis. Russia is the second largest exporter of emissions embodied in trade and the large portion of these emissions is directed to developed countries. Because of the large amount of net exports of carbon-intensive goods, the current approach to emissions accounting does not suit Russia’s interests. On the one hand, Russia, as well as other large net emissions exporters, is interested in the revision of allocation of responsibility between exporters and importers of carbon-intensive products. On the other hand, both the commodity exports structure and relatively carbon inefficient technologies make Russia vulnerable to the policy of “carbon protectionism,” which can be implemented by its trade partners.
The paper gives an overview of current situation in tourism industry in Russia. This research studies some economic effects of tourism in Russia in comparison with other countries and assesses the multiplicative effect of tourism on the country economy. The research is based on data of Rosstat and WTTC. The analysis can provide useful information to help maximize the economic impact of tourism on the economy of Russia and give a forecast of tourism development in the country.
The paper is organized as follows: section 1 describes the Russian official input-output tables, which is the key data source; section 2 contains an overview of processing of the source data into a form corresponding to the GTAP requirements; section 3 outlines how we split the source 2003 I-O table; section 4 follows steps of reconciling Russian data with the GTAP structure. Section 5 is focused on imports and tax tables creation. Section 6 notes diagnostics tests applied to the data base before its distribution.