Legislation as a Source of Law in Late Imperial Russia
The article describes and analizes the issue of access to all potential legal sources in late imperial Russia as an important component of legality principle. The author investigates how local features of political and administrative culture and legal professionalism determined the specific practical application of this principle.
The book represents the second release of the collection of articles published by faculty of the right of the Nizhny Novgorod branch of National research university "Higher School of Economics" and devoted to the retrospective analysis of interaction of the power and society. The big place is allocated for legal and historical and legal aspects of such interaction. The special attention is paid to history of public institutions and interaction of the power and society from antiquity prior to the beginning of the XX century. A number of problems of the Russian history of this period is considered on materials of the Nizhny Novgorod region. This book is dated for 70-year anniversary of the remarkable scientist, law historian, the famous in Russia bibliophile and the local historian – the doctor of jurisprudence, professor Yury Grigoryevich Galaya. The edition is addressed to the scientists, students, graduate students, teachers of higher education institutions all who are interested in matters of law and managements by history of state and law, study of local lore.
The report addresses the methodological challenge of studying judicial reasoning in a Codified Systems of such Western countries as France and Germany in the 19th century and Russia in the late 19th early 20th century. The difference in style of Western European and Russian decision should be explained by taking into account national legal consciousness along with black letter rules of the codes and statutes.
Opinions of professors and chairmen of chambers of appeals on the quality of teaching in universities' law schools in imperial Russia in the late 19th - early 20th century are discussed.
This article is dedicated to analysis and estimations of a place of the subjective public rights in the mechanism of maintenance of a mode of legality. Article contains the author's vision and understanding of legality, the actual problems connected with its maintenance.
The vollume addresses the modern history of legality principle – central to all western legal systems. Contributions provide comparative look at various parts of the Western world, including Argentina, Finland, and Russia, in order to reveal the common path of legality principle development and its local variations.
This article is devoted to the Digest of the Laws of the Russian Empire – an embodiment of the operative legal system in late imperial Russia. Even though the Digest contained the law in force, and thus should be studied as a crucial source on Russian (legal) history, its meaning has been often overlooked. The reason for that is a remarkable difference between the original texts of laws adopted by the legislator, and their published form in the Digest. This difference came from the necessary editing procedures when every new piece of legislation was included in the existing system of the Digest. This strange feature of legal procedure when two different versions of a particular law – the original one and the one codified in the Digest – both remained in force should be considered as a part of official autocratic legality in late imperial Russia. Even though it may seem inefficient and irrational, the practice of obligatory codification of laws in the Digest existed for a rather long time – from 1835 until 1917. My research aims to find possible explanations for the Digest’s prolonged existence in the context of political and legal culture of late imperial Russia. What did Russian ‘official legality’ actually mean on the levels of theory and action?
This project is an attempt to challenge the canonical gender concept while trying to specify what gender was in the medieval and early modern world. Despite the emphasis on individual, identity and difference that past research claims, much of this history still focuses on hierarchical or dichotomous paring of masculinity and femininity (or male and female). The emphasis on differences has been largely based on the research of such topics as premarital sex, religious deviance, rape and violence; these are topics that were, in the early modern society, criminal or at least easily marginalizing. The central focus of the book is to test, verify and challenge the methodology and use the concept(s) of gender specifically applicable to the period of great change and transition. The volume contains two theoretical sections supplemented by case-studies of gender through specific practices such as mysticism, witchcraft, crime, and legal behaviour. The first section, "Concepts", analyzes certain useful notions, such as patriarchy and morality. The second section, "Identities", seeks to deepen this analysis into the studies of female identities in various situations, cultures and dimensions and to show the fluidity and flexibility of what is called femininity nowadays. The third part, "Practises", seeks to rethink the bigger narratives through the case-studies coming from Northern Europe to see how conventional ideas of gender did not work in this particular region. The case studies also challenge the established narratives in such well-research historiographies as witchcraft and sexual offences and at the same time suggest new insights for the developing fields of study, such as history of homicide.
The chapter unfolds history of violence against women in nineteenth-century Russia. Based on the court materials and legal documents it tells the depressing history of rape and domestic violence, to which Russian women of all social ranks were subjected.