Публичная история: дисциплина или профессия
An emergence of China as a new center of power causes hot debates about its possible positive and negative impacts on the system of international relations. In an attempt to explain the present and predict what is awaiting the world in the future, the humankind traditionally refers to the history. Meanwhile, in the age of new media and a rapid development of technologies this branch of knowledge inevitably undergoes changes, for example, the role played by public history is gradually increasing. For China, which focuses on soft power and the country image in the international arena, this aspect is very important, although for many centuries there is already a quite special, different from Western worldviews, relation to the history in the Chinese society. Obviously, there is a need to explore and subject to comprehensive analysis a number of features that characterize a process of a formation of Chinese historical narratives.
The text describes the evolution of sociological understanding of academic disciplines, since the 1960s (including their pre-history in 1930-1940) to the present time. In the early stages disciplines were considered as a social mechanism formed by groups and communities in particular social, cultural and political conditions. In the 1970s, there was a significant turn in the study of disciplinarity: researchers were attempting to go beyond the understanding of sociology of science as sociology of academic communities and logics of their organization. In the 1980s and early 1990s the essentialist understanding of disciplines, which was widely spread within the sociology, was questioned. In the 2000s, the revision of the research priorities has been continued. The revision manifests itself in the refusal of essentialist interpretations of disciplinarity, attention to social and practical conditions of its sustainability, understanding of disciplinarity both produced by macrocontext (new centers of academic influence) and microcontext and situations (the actions of the specific communities and their members in the new centers of production and knowledge assessment).
The article analyses the emergence of public history in different countries as a communication space for both academic historians and non-academic groups engaged in the practices associated with the past. The Russian trajectory of public history is mainly addressed through a description and analysis of university programmes in public history. The conference “The Past Is A Foreign Country? Public History in Russia” held by Public History Laboratory in June 2016, as well as the articles comprising the following thematic series, are viewed from the given perspective.
The proposed article is based on the results of content analysis of informational TV programs of major Russian TV channels. Historical persons mentioned in these programs are considered in general context. Main conclusion is that some of the references are made in the context of fixing the characters move from the present to history. Other references are connected with the process of legitimization of current events by putting them into historical context.
The recent history of post-Soviet societies is often described in terms of the transition metaphor. Images of movement as well as changing places and situations were foundational for the social conceptualization of the new nations. The idea of looking for novelty and new beginnings legitimized the dissolution of the USSR as well as many state- and economy-related experiments. This volume describes how the new societies survived this period of regime change, economic crises, internal wars, political drawbacks, and social innovations, and how they are making sense of it. The volume’s contributors include Russian, Ukrainian, and German scholars who analyze political, social, and cultural ideologies: Natalia Koulinka, Kostiantyn Fedorenko, Pavel Skigin, Jesko Schmoller, Valentyna Kyselova, Anton Avksentiev, Chris Monday, Egor Isaev, Oleksandr Zabirko, Sergiy Kurbatov, Alla Marchenko, Jennifer J. Carroll, Daria Goriacheva, and Darya Malyutina.