Глава 11. Лидеры и аутсайдеры в российской промышленности: динамика и факторы роста эффективности на уровне фирм
The chapter focuses on the alternative measures of the relative competitiveness of Russian manufacturing enterprises and on assessing the changes in the distribution of manufacturing firms by those measures between 2005 and 2009.
There co-exist several problems when measuring the level of competitiveness. The major one is that it represents an integral indicator of the enterprise performance. The indicator has something in common with the notion of the utility function used in economics. The latter one stamps a numerical equivalent of the utility associated by an individual from the consumption (or possession) of certain goods. Nevertheless, it stays an implicit (non-observable) function.
In this paper we analyze the impact of financial and non-financial performance of Russian companies on the likelihood of corporate fraud. By constructing a regression model it was proven that the main factor indicating the presence of fraud in the company is an increase of the relationship between Sales General and Administration costs and amount of sales. The results of the study can be used as a basis for development of a methodology to identify and prevent fraud.
I report the results of observations of management practices in 20 Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of Western multinational corporations (MNCs). I argue that to counterbalance the higher country-specific risks associated with investing in Russia, MNCs impose on their Russian subsidiaries high demands for superior performance in terms of both technical and economic efficiency. My observations confirm that in most cases such demands are successfully met by the implementation of highly effective practices. Thus, I challenge several beliefs about industrial management in Russia, including the myths that Russian firms are hostile towards knowledge sharing and are wary of talent.
This study presents a snapshot of investment projects in manufacturing that were implemented by foreign investors in Russia during 2017–2018. We assemble a unique database of all new plants opened by foreign companies in Russia during 2012–2018 to clarify the distribution of investment projects implemented during 2017–2018 across industries and territories with different tax regimes. We also identify the most interesting individual investment projects, interrelated investment projects, and elements of collective actions. In general, foreign investors in manufacturing demonstrate high ingenuity in discovering and exploiting the remaining emerging growing market segments and promising niches in consumer and professional markets and express significant persistence in realizing investment projects. We also demonstrate the methods applied to decrease the uncertainty of the project costs by establishing partnerships with local foreign- and domestically owned companies and the attempts to correct the government’s decisions and regulatory measures that are uncomfortable for foreign investors.
Two classes of two- and three-person games on polyhedral sets of player strategies that appear in estimating fair shares of the market participants in a marketplace are considered. In games from both classes, payoff functions of the players are sums of linear functions of vector arguments or those of linear ones and a bilinear function. Games from the first class are those in which player strategies are connected, i.e., they cannot be chosen by the players independently, whereas player strategies in games from the second class are disjoint. For the games from both classes either sucient or necessary and sucient conditions of the equilibriums are provided, and these conditions allow one to calculate the equilibriums by effective optimization techniques. This fact contributes to making the equilibrium concept a productive approach to quantitatively analyzing conflicts in systems economic studies. Economic problems that appear in systems described by nonlinear mathematical models with linear constraints, in particular, by some network models, including a) restructuring a company and positioning the restructured company in a market or in several markets, b) forming a pool of regional clients interested in selling their products and in buying somebody else's ones outside their regions via forward contracts offered by regional brokers, c) determining initial prices for procurement contracts to be tendered by a public administration, d) nding competitive transportation taris by a railroad company competing with tracking companies for providing transportation services both in a region and between two regions, e) calculating an optimal volume of producing electricity by a base load power plant in a part of a country's electrical grid under an uncertain demand in the corresponding network of the grid customers, and f) forming a public-private partnership to develop a set of projects that a public administration needs to develop and implement, but does not have funds to nance on its own (partly or even completely) are discussed to illustrate how the games under consideration appear, and how they can be analyzed.
To help countries achieve their full industrialization potential and fulfil the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and thereby improve their general welfare, UNIDO is promoting the concept of comprehensive and sustainable industrial development (ISID), which was established in the Lima Declaration adopted by UNIDO Member States on 2 December 2013. The UN General Assembly recognizes the significance of ISID as an important strategic direction for fostering global development in the future. ISID is a key instrument for achieving sustainable economic growth, the creation of quality jobs, the building of equal societies, the protection of the environment, and the active shaping of comprehensive sustainable globalization. The promotion of ISID as the key driver for successful integration of economic, social and environmental factors necessary to achieve full implementation of sustainable development by creating and improving countries’ industrial potential is the main priority of UNIDO’s current activities. To successfully implement ISID, UNIDO acts as a global forum for industrial development and the establishment of relevant international standards, including standards on industrial statistics [UNIDO, 2014; 2013a]. Accordingly, UNIDO has been implementing the regional project “Improvement of industrial statistics and development of statistical indicators for the analysis of industrial development in the CIS countries” since 2013. The project’s main objective is to provide methodological assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States’ (CIS) national statistical services in implementing international standards on industrial statistics in the statistical practice and presentation of modern, internationally comparable information for a qualitative and reliable reflection of industrial development processes. This report presents the results of the statistical analysis describing the availability, quality and measurement capabilities of official statistics in the CIS countries accumulated over the period 2005-2014.