This paper considers current contradictions in state–business relations in Russia. On one hand, the Russian political elite needs economic growth to keep social stability in the country and to limit mass protesting in big cities. Economic growth is impossible without investment, which explains Russian leaders’ increased interest in improving Russia’s business climate. On the other hand, influential interest groups (represented first of all by security and law enforcement agencies) try to expand their control on rent sources in the economy. These groups of interests could strengthen their positions due to fear of political protests. This strong conflict among different groups in the Russian elite creates additional uncertainty for investors and the business community, and can lead to economic recession independent of the level of oil prices and dynamics of global markets. Reversing these negative trends in economic development will be possible only with collective actions of different economic and political actors (including technocrats in federal and regional governments, representatives of large and successful middle-sized business and topmanagers of public sector organizations) in the search for pragmatic solutions to the challenges faced by Russian economy and society.
An innovation analysis in conditions of transition economy is the important means of diagnosing a firm's management. This paper presents a view of authors on solving some of the important methodological issues of the innovation analysis application. The proposed system of analytical parameters includes characteristics of a scientific and technical standard of innovations, an innovation process and the efficiency of innovation activity. The parameters of competitiveness (for 1st group), innovation activity (for 2nd group) and market diffusion (for 3rd group) are emphasized. In addition, 5-6 local parameters-characteristics of innovation activity are included in each group. The proposed parameters are segregated by the three stages of innovation activity: innovation creation, innovation deployment (application) and innovation output production.
The article analyzes the issue of Russia»s accession to the WTO and the need to improve its national competitiveness. The key competitiveness factors of national economies and the country's rating by the global competitiveness index are determined. The writer believes that the country»s position by the indicator in question could be strengthened by the advanced development of education and improvement of the innovative capacity based on the coordinated actions by the government and private businesses.
The aim of this paper is to conduct an empirical investigation and reveal what types of modernization strategies and characteristics of regional institutional environment are likely to be associated with different trajectories of firms’ performance in 2007-2012. Using hierarchical cluster analysis we revealed the typical trajectories of firms’ sales growth and found that the dynamic of sales for more than 90% of firms can be described by just two types of performance curve: (a) crisis decline-recovery and the stable growth and (b) crisis decline with weak recovery and stagnation. We test three hypotheses that (1) companies that invested a lot in modernization and restructuring of business before the crisis were more likely to successfully overcome the crisis shock, and (2) that location of firms in the regions with better institutional environment could also matter for the likelihood of successful recovery, and (3) firms with foreign ownership are more likely to overcome quickly and successfully crisis shocks and continue growth in post-crisis period. We found the firms that invested more prior to the crisis are more likely to have positive post-crisis dynamics of sales. Active restructuring accompanied by the rise of the number of employees in pre-crisis period was also a significant factor associated with propensity to be a member of successful cluster. We proved an evidence that firms in the regions with less level of corruption (both administrative and everyday) were more likely to successfully overcome the crisis shock. Contrary to the studies in other countries we found no evidence of significant positive role of foreign ownership.
The book reflects the main trends in the innovative development of enterprises in the conditions of system transformation. We study the methodology of development of innovative component of enterprise management, study options of innovative development tools businesses