«Кемпфолловеры» (campfollowers) армии Дж. Вашингтона.
Only soldiers are not the army. They - its most important, fundamental part. However, the existence and activities of the army is impossible without auxiliary forces. "Campfollowers" were necessary for the survival of the army, as the army was essential to the success and survival of the rising American nation. Who were "campfollowers"? R.Holms military historian writes: "Campfollowers" - ... civilians who were following the army and served the army in camps, selling goods and services that they could not provide".
During the Revolutionary War, women applied their traditional skills they learned as homemakers to espionage work. Often at great peril they secretly provided critical intelligence data to military and civilian leaders. There were several women in the Setauket Spy Ring that operated during revolution and kept general Washington supplied with information regarding the movements of the British troops in New York and Long Island.
Article dedicated to the women's participation in supplying of Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. Association of American women collected money, clothing and provisions helping troops to survive the crisis moments in the war life.
Almanac "Adam and Eve" - Russia's first periodical specially devoted to the problems of gender history, which is part of the interdisciplinary area of social and humanities. The authors use the opportunities of gender analysis in the study of various historical periods and areas of human activity, considering the past and present through the prism of relations between the sexes and socio-cultural concepts of "male" and "female."
Women have been integral to the development of printing and journalism in North America since the earliest settlers landed in the New World . 26 women worked as printers during colonial period. The women printed in their printing officers not only newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, broadsides, leaflets, but many blank forms. These included all types of legal documents used in the indenture of apprentices, the sale of slaves or real estate, drawing up of wills and letters of administration, ships' bills of lading, and so forth.
Sculpture has always been a purely masculine matter. However, history has known a number of women’s names in this art. One of them is Patience Lowell Wright (1725–1786). She molded her figures out of wax since childhood. After the death of her husband,to earn a living for herself and her children, she turned a hobby into a job. In the 17th century, the activities of professional sculptors in America were limited to the production of tombstones and nose pieces for ships. Patience’s sister showed how to model life-size figures. Patience decided to specialize in creating images of outstanding contemporaries. In short, a traveling exhibition (the first in the US) of figures of famous public figures was created. Two years later, the number of figures was enough to organize two permanent exhibitions in Philadelphia and New York. But on June 3, 1771, a fire destroyed many of her works and she decided to move to London. Owing to the patronage of Benjamin Franklin, she was quickly accepted into London society. She made many famous British figures including Th. Penn, Ch. Fox, W. Pitt, C. Macaulay. She had a friendly relationship even with the royal couple, but only before the start of the Independence War. The sculptor openly sided with the colonists. It is believed that she even sent spy information,hidden in her figures, to the members of the Continental Congress. Another sphere of Wright’s activities was the liberation of American prisoners that started with the “Platt Case”. After the struggle for independence resulted in an open conflict, Wright’s business declined sharply. Left without a job in 1780, she went to Paris, hoping to open a new wax studio. By making a bust of Franklin, she tried to find a way to Parisian society, but failed. In 1782, she returned to London and began writing to American leaders, including G. Washington and Th. Jefferson, for permission to make their models. By 1785, she decided to return to New Jersey. However, when preparing for the departure, she fell and broke her leg. A week later, on March 23, 1786, she died. Her sister Rachel was trying to get financial assistance from prominent Americans and the Continental Congress to pay for her burial, but to no avail. Ultimately, P. Wright was buried in London, and her place of burial is unknown now.
The history of formation of the new scientific discipline – women’ and gender studies in Russian science of the past – is represented in the article through the prism of creation of the united information and search resource – a database “Women’ and Gender History of Russia, 1800-2010”. The authors focus the attention on the absence of such nationwide catalogues and bibliographies, on the complexity of the information collectioning and its generalization, as well as on the methods of ensuring the gathered information in the tags and keywords. At the same time the article encourages to join to the network of the researchers who study the past through the aspect of gender, talks about the role that “The Russian Association of Women’ History Researchers” played in the development of the “new social history” – with the ascent on the history from the individuals till the large social groups.
Almanac "Adam and Eve" - first periodical specially devoted to the problems of gender history, which is part of the interdisciplinary area of social and humanities. The authors use the opportunities of gender analysis in the study of various historical periods and areas of human activity, considering the past and present through the prism of relations between the sexes and socio-cultural concepts.
Edition includes materials of the international scientific conference RAIZHI ( Russian Studies Association women's history ) , the venue of which was elected in 2010 Cherepovets State University (Cherepovets, Vologda region). Proceedings of the conference gives an insight into the ways of development and formation of the actual scientific field - women's and gender studies in the sciences of the past, the complexities and contradictions that arise in the framework of the scientific community , as well as women's social experiences and identities of women in traditional and contemporary contexts of the policy problem legal status of women , the family and marriage in the history and culture of the peoples of Eurasia , the tender as a category of political and educational discourse , including the discourse practices of its construction , the history of women's movement .