Положение женщин в США по материалам российских журналов второй половины XIX века
Russian journals demonstrated problems, shaped aims and goals, and showed forms and methods of campaigning in support of women's rights in Russia, using the examples from other countries, especially from Europe and the USA. In 1860-1910 in Russia there appeared more than 350 publications on this topic. Among them were serious research materials, translations, articles, pamphlets, documents from conferences and meetings, and statistical data. A great deal of articles, which analyzed the status of women in the West, described the situation in the USA as the most favourable to them and showed that the women's movement there had achieved the best results. Therefore a number of authors thought the rights of American women to be an aim for Russia. Forms and methods of campaigning were depicted in minute details, so the articles could be seen as 'instructions' for women of Russia.
Folding of the American historical experience proceeded dramaticly, but brought important lessons for the development of all mankind. XXXIV International Conference of the Russian Society for the Study of American Culture, entitled "Display and interpretation of history in the culture of the United States", helped to analyze the dynamics of the processes associated with the perception of the history of North American cultural figures.
During the Revolutionary War, women applied their traditional skills they learned as homemakers to espionage work. Often at great peril they secretly provided critical intelligence data to military and civilian leaders. There were several women in the Setauket Spy Ring that operated during revolution and kept general Washington supplied with information regarding the movements of the British troops in New York and Long Island.
In this article we are talking about the early development of the educational process in one of England's North American colonies. Pennsylvania attracted many immigrants from Europe by its religious freedom. Moving to a new land, Europeans from different countries brought their way of life, including various systems of education. Therefore, at the end of the beginning of the XVII-XVIII centuries there were several different types of schools. The national education system, which appeared only in the XIX century has absorbed much of the colonists created.
The second issue of the collection of articles is devoted to actual problems and new methods in the history of the USA in modern Russian American studies. The specialists from Moscow, Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Saransk, Astrakhan, Kirov and also from Belarus (Minsk), Ukraine (Kiev) and USA (Pennsylvania, Illinois) created it. It became international as a matter of fact. The mutual cooperation of different specialists in the American Studies: historians, philologists, culturologists, politologists, lawyers will be a special feature of this collection. There are different articles on actual questions. There are articles on domestic and foreign policy of the USA in 18-21 centuries. It has works on the history of American journalism, literature, theatre and law. The authors used new methods of studying: narrative, discourse, gender, interdisciplinary, comparative analysis and computer investigation of statistics. The collection of articles will be interesting and useful to researches, lectures and teachers, post-graduates and students, and also those who are interested in the problems of the USA.
The history of formation of the new scientific discipline – women’ and gender studies in Russian science of the past – is represented in the article through the prism of creation of the united information and search resource – a database “Women’ and Gender History of Russia, 1800-2010”. The authors focus the attention on the absence of such nationwide catalogues and bibliographies, on the complexity of the information collectioning and its generalization, as well as on the methods of ensuring the gathered information in the tags and keywords. At the same time the article encourages to join to the network of the researchers who study the past through the aspect of gender, talks about the role that “The Russian Association of Women’ History Researchers” played in the development of the “new social history” – with the ascent on the history from the individuals till the large social groups.
Exploring performances of Russian music at the Metropolitan Opera in New York allows observing the evolutions and paradigmatic changes in American high-brow cultural discourse and analyzing changing structures of repertoire policies and public preferences over the period that covers the entire existence of the Met between 1883 and December 2016. Using the opera’s digital archive, a number of queries on leading Russian composers (Glinka, Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, and Shostakovich) were conducted in order to examine the interrelationship between cultural, political, and musical-historical factors that fed into repertoire dynamics and their reflection in the public space. Within the general operatic context, the Russians could never vie the dominating Italian and German composers. However, Russian authors have consistently taken mid-range positions and their works gained substantial public visibility. Tchaikovsky and Mussorgsky emerged as leaders throughout the period of the inquiry, confirming the thesis of reductionist conservatism of the standard opera repertoire at the Met. Modern composers showed different dynamics, with Stravinsky clearly surpassing the Soviet school due to his public stature, a long period of stay in America, particular position as the doyen of 20th century music, and cultural-political involvement during cold war. Indeed, all important premieres of Prokofiev and Shostakovich fall into the period after 1991, and the critical reactions show the centrality of democracy-totalitarianism binomial in the construction of discourses on contemporary Soviet music. Economic and macro-political factors did not necessarily have a direct impact on opera performances: while the Great Depression years expectedly show an ebbing down of operatic activities, the wartime alliance did not translate in a spike in Russian performances. Favorable economic conjuncture of the post-war period and continuous media expansion of the Met ensured the growing quantity and increasing prominence of Russian works within the New York and American society, available to audiences larger than New York's educated public thanks to Met’s Anglicization policy, performances at various venues at home and abroad, and radio, television, and internet broadcasts. The market made Tchaikovsky’s rule supreme, otherwise leading to partial diversification of Russian repertoire, favored by growing internationalization and public stature of the Met. Overall, the transferred imageries included exoticism, high quality expectations (concomitant with growing musical prestige) and often contradictory perceptions of Russia that went beyond the immediate political agenda and fitted the globalizing patterns of “national” opera repertoire and discourse.
This article is about one of the most radical sects of independents — quakers. The English Govenment considered quakers to be a danger to the state and began to persecute them. As a result a lot of quakers went to the North America and founded their own colony there.
"Semiotics of Scandal" is the third collection of the series "Mechanisms of culture". It presents the materials of an international conference held at the Center for Slavic studies (Sorbonne, Paris). The authors, using different methodologies, analyze different forms of scandal as one of the dominant categories of the literary process, history, and politics.
This review is devoted to the history of foreign and Russian women’s charity from the first centuries of Christian history to the present day. After the first two centuries of Christianity deaconnesses started instructed women, visited the sick, the poor, and Christians in prisons. In the age of the Crusades women began to found spiritual communes, the first commune was established in XII century in Belgium. Such movement became widespead in European countries in middle ages and modern history. In XX-XXI centuries this work goes on. Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Diana, Princess of Wales, actress Audrey Hupburn and others involve in humanitarian activity and social activism. In Russia Christianity charity developed in a special direction: love for the poor. Kievan Rus had the most well-organised system of in medieval Europe. The history of charitable organisations in Russia can be divided into two stages. The first stage, from mid-16th century to 1862, is the period when charitable organisations were establishing themselves in Russia. The second period, from 1862 to 1906, is the golden age of Russian societies of charity and mercy. Our contemporaries continue the traditions of charity. Among them we can name Raisa Gorbacheva, Russian actresses, Chulpan Khamatova and Dina Korzun, Natalia Vodianova and other.