Квакеры в Англии и североамериканских колониях в XVII веке
This article is about one of the most radical sects of independents — quakers. The English Govenment considered quakers to be a danger to the state and began to persecute them. As a result a lot of quakers went to the North America and founded their own colony there.
Folding of the American historical experience proceeded dramaticly, but brought important lessons for the development of all mankind. XXXIV International Conference of the Russian Society for the Study of American Culture, entitled "Display and interpretation of history in the culture of the United States", helped to analyze the dynamics of the processes associated with the perception of the history of North American cultural figures.
The yearbook published materials about the period from the end of XVIII to the middle of XX century. The authors examine a wide range of problems - from the ratification of the Constitution in 1787 in Massachusetts to the so-called American university novel. The reader will find little-known travel impressions of poet Balmont from a trip to America in the early XX century. Under the heading "America and Russia" a comparative analysis of the relationship of Russian and American to aborigines, examined the activities of the Soviet scientific, technical and industrial intelligence in the U.S. during the Second World War. Canadian themes represented by articles on the protection of fur seals in the Russian -Canadian relations at the turn of XIX-XX centuries. and the evolution of the Canada -Mexico bilateral relations. In the " Bibliography " are works on the history of the United States and Canada, published in Russian in 2007-2008 . For historians, political scientists and all those interested in the history of America.
In this article we are talking about the early development of the educational process in one of England's North American colonies. Pennsylvania attracted many immigrants from Europe by its religious freedom. Moving to a new land, Europeans from different countries brought their way of life, including various systems of education. Therefore, at the end of the beginning of the XVII-XVIII centuries there were several different types of schools. The national education system, which appeared only in the XIX century has absorbed much of the colonists created.
The second issue of the collection of articles is devoted to actual problems and new methods in the history of the USA in modern Russian American studies. The specialists from Moscow, Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Saransk, Astrakhan, Kirov and also from Belarus (Minsk), Ukraine (Kiev) and USA (Pennsylvania, Illinois) created it. It became international as a matter of fact. The mutual cooperation of different specialists in the American Studies: historians, philologists, culturologists, politologists, lawyers will be a special feature of this collection. There are different articles on actual questions. There are articles on domestic and foreign policy of the USA in 18-21 centuries. It has works on the history of American journalism, literature, theatre and law. The authors used new methods of studying: narrative, discourse, gender, interdisciplinary, comparative analysis and computer investigation of statistics. The collection of articles will be interesting and useful to researches, lectures and teachers, post-graduates and students, and also those who are interested in the problems of the USA.
Women have been integral to the development of printing and journalism in North America since the earliest settlers landed in the New World . 26 women worked as printers during colonial period. The women printed in their printing officers not only newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, broadsides, leaflets, but many blank forms. These included all types of legal documents used in the indenture of apprentices, the sale of slaves or real estate, drawing up of wills and letters of administration, ships' bills of lading, and so forth.
Exploring performances of Russian music at the Metropolitan Opera in New York allows observing the evolutions and paradigmatic changes in American high-brow cultural discourse and analyzing changing structures of repertoire policies and public preferences over the period that covers the entire existence of the Met between 1883 and December 2016. Using the opera’s digital archive, a number of queries on leading Russian composers (Glinka, Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, and Shostakovich) were conducted in order to examine the interrelationship between cultural, political, and musical-historical factors that fed into repertoire dynamics and their reflection in the public space. Within the general operatic context, the Russians could never vie the dominating Italian and German composers. However, Russian authors have consistently taken mid-range positions and their works gained substantial public visibility. Tchaikovsky and Mussorgsky emerged as leaders throughout the period of the inquiry, confirming the thesis of reductionist conservatism of the standard opera repertoire at the Met. Modern composers showed different dynamics, with Stravinsky clearly surpassing the Soviet school due to his public stature, a long period of stay in America, particular position as the doyen of 20th century music, and cultural-political involvement during cold war. Indeed, all important premieres of Prokofiev and Shostakovich fall into the period after 1991, and the critical reactions show the centrality of democracy-totalitarianism binomial in the construction of discourses on contemporary Soviet music. Economic and macro-political factors did not necessarily have a direct impact on opera performances: while the Great Depression years expectedly show an ebbing down of operatic activities, the wartime alliance did not translate in a spike in Russian performances. Favorable economic conjuncture of the post-war period and continuous media expansion of the Met ensured the growing quantity and increasing prominence of Russian works within the New York and American society, available to audiences larger than New York's educated public thanks to Met’s Anglicization policy, performances at various venues at home and abroad, and radio, television, and internet broadcasts. The market made Tchaikovsky’s rule supreme, otherwise leading to partial diversification of Russian repertoire, favored by growing internationalization and public stature of the Met. Overall, the transferred imageries included exoticism, high quality expectations (concomitant with growing musical prestige) and often contradictory perceptions of Russia that went beyond the immediate political agenda and fitted the globalizing patterns of “national” opera repertoire and discourse.
During the colonial period in the printing field 26 women worked. Eleven of them lived at the expense of the profession, 10 - were busy with the release of weeklies. These women lived in 7 colonies, in 10 cities. Five had the status of official publishers. In a short period four female publishers of newspapers were in different cities.
This article uses new evidence to investigate Yugoslav foreign policy through the prism of inter-party relations rather than traditional high diplomacy. It shows the Yugoslav Communists hoped comradeship with Britain's Labour Party would influence Western policies to counter the Soviet threat. Initial successes, especially a deterrent statement by the British Cabinet in February 1951, inspired great optimism. The Labour left was also delighted that Communism could be reformed and Cold War tensions lessened. However, ideological differences crystallised over the Djilas affair and Yugoslavia's choice for Non-Alignment. Only mutual opposition to the USSR during the crises of 1956 ensured their continuing friendship.