"Буддистская экономика" Э.Ф. Шумахера и те, кому она адресована
The article deals with а problem of nonlinear regression modeling in sociology: prevalence of variables measured on low type scales, inconsistency of quality parameters of the models, nonlinearity of modeled events, presence of latent interactions between studied variables and, finally, as a consequence, a problem of finding an effective system of predictors. The article contains suggestions to handle these problems.
The quality of the evidence on the efficacy and safety of therapeutic and preventive interventions is analyzed in health technology assessment procedure (including the development of reimbursement lists such as the List of Vital and Essential Drugs in Russian Federation) and during development of clinical guidelines. The traditional approach to assess the evidence quality is based on the well-known pyramid of research designs (from meta-analyses to case descriptions), and now it is obsolete. The modern approach is to take into account also the methodological quality of studies. The methodological quality depends on risks of biases and the risk of incorrect data analysis. The article proposes a scale based on combinations of designs and three levels of methodological quality (high, medium, poor) for each of them. The scale differentiates meta-analyses based on randomized controlled trials and comparative studies of other designs. In the scale, the new design of indirect comparisons is envisaged, its’ evidence is lower than for RCT that are used for indirect comparisons. The scale can be used for assessing the absolute and relative effectiveness and safety of medical and preventive medical technologies. At present, the scale is included in the guidelines for the complex assessment of pharmaceuticals.
The paper discusses in detail the scale of translation of primary points scored by school graduates in the unified state exam in mathematics, used from 2013 to the present time. Based on the analysis of the dynamics of these scales, a conclusion is made about the annual increase in the "average" 100-point result, as well as the presence of a significant increase in the final grade compared with the linear scale. Additionally, the authors describe the effect of reducing the value of primary points as they approach the maximum.