Построение институционально-экономического пространства функционирования бизнеса
The lack of academic integrity combined with the prevalence of fraud and other forms of unethical behavior are problems that higher education faces in both developing and developed countries, at mass and elite universities, and at public and private institutions. While academic misconduct is not new, massification, internationalization, privatization, digitalization, and commercialization have placed ethical challenges higher on the agenda for many universities. Corruption in academia is particularly unfortunate, not only because the high social regard that universities have traditionally enjoyed, but also because students—young people in critical formative years—spend a significant amount of time in universities. How they experience corruption while enrolled might influence their later personal and professional behavior, the future of their country, and much more. Further, the corruption of the research enterprise is especially serious for the future of science. The contributors to Corruption in Higher Education: Global Challenges and Responses bring a range of perspectives to this critical topic.
In this study, for the first time in Russian practice from a large amount of empirical data on state contracts for procurement of goods, works and services, made a major budgetary organization during 2008-2010., Examines factors affecting the decline in trading, delays in supplies, as well as problems in the performance of obligations under the contracts. The analysis showed that a reduction prices at the auctions directly dependent on the number of applications accepted for review by the competitive commissions. Falling prices are more frequent in the procurement of goods and experimental trust (compared to the benefits of the inspection), as well as a state contract for works. However, the prices are much less likely to have been lowered in auctions (compared to purchasing through quotations and tenders). Delays in supplies occurred in 27% of patients and were more frequent in the procurement of experimental benefits, and were characterized for major purchases and state contracts executed during the I-III quarters of the year. More serious problems in the performance of obligations, full fraught with supply disruptions, have characterized the state contracts, culminating in the IV quarter. The overall risk supply disruptions were reported only 5% of purchases at competitive procedures, but on the contracts accounted for nearly half of all purchases of the budget organization in 2008-2010. Based on the analysis in the formulation of recommendations to improve the system of public procurement.
The collapse of the Soviet Union’s centrally-planned economy suggests that resources’ allocation, under socialist rule, was woefully inefficient and, ultimately, gave way to a market economy. For the successful transformation from socialism, entrepreneurship is essential. In the meantime, family business becomes an essential organisational form of private enterprise, facilitating market transformation. Family entrepreneurship plays a pivotal role in transition economies. In this chapter, we first stipulate the importance of entrepreneurship and market process for transition economies by focusing on three main activities, including the discovery of opportunity, mobilisation of resources, and creation of organisation; we then discuss the concept of family entrepreneurship. Secondly, we review the development of Russian family businesses for both big family businesses and SMEs. Thirdly, based on analysing the entrepreneurial process, we are able to identify the underlying predicaments during the promotion of entrepreneurship in transition economies. Although many transition economies are in the process of the market transformation, given their different political, social, and economic institutions, the path chosen might be different, and it is essential for transition economies to clear the obstacles for entrepreneurial activities.
The collection of articles contains works by scientists that participated in the V International Scientific and Practical conference "The Sociology of Criminal Law: interdisciplinary aspect". The conference was held in Ulan-Ude in 2018.
the problem of corruption in the Russian society is widely covered in the scientific literature and among the causes of this phenomenon, which have a deep character, is called the low level or deformation of the legal consciousness of the participants of corruption relations. At the same time, the analysis of judicial practice in cases of corruption-related crimes in the field of education suggests the involvement of its representatives in these relations. In itself, this fact, as well as the characteristic of the degree of their prevalence, can not but cause confusion in the researcher, since the mission of the Institute of education is to form, first of all, a system of value orientations of law-abiding and, ultimately – the appropriate level of legal consciousness. The fact of participation of representatives of the educational sphere in corruption interactions is an expression of the apparent inability to implement this mission. On the basis of the analysis of practice of courts of Perm Krai and G. Perm the authors consider the specifics of forms of corruption in the field of education, taking into account the conducted sociological research, find out the attitude of the population of the region to this phenomenon, with the involvement of opinions expressed in the theory about its nature, consequences and possibilities of countering formulate their own point of view.
Until recently, the issues of anti-corruption and the problems of constitutional law were studied separately. Although it is the anti-corruption approach to legal issues that allows to expand the constitutional law instrumentarium. The author analyzes the so-called corruption equation of Robert Klitgaard: “Corruption = Monopoly + Freedom of action – Accountability.” The article proposes the “anti-corruption equation” translated in legal language: “Regular alternation of power + Power, limited by the law + System of checks and balances”. The author puts forward and substantiates the hypothesis that the totality of anti-corruption requirements constitutes the formula of a democratic law-bound state that operates in conditions of the human rights priority and the rule of law. And vice versa, the Klitgaard’s “corruption equation” in the same legal translation constitutes the formula of an authoritarian political regime. The article analyzes various classifications of corruption and notes the particular danger of political corruption. It has a comprehensive systemic nature and uses the infrastructure of the entire political process, rather than of a separate department or a separate public office, to achieve corruption goals. Under the conditions of the republic state, the government usually does not show its corruption goals and is forced to imitate democratic processes, replacing them with authoritarian practices. The mechanism of political corruption, therefore, becomes a means for leveling constitutionalism. At the same time, an authoritarian political regime is not always a primary and necessary factor of corruption. In some cases, such regime is created artificially specifically for certain corruption goals. In support of the stated theses, the author analyzes constitutional transformations in the CIS countries in the light of anti-corruption research.
The paper analyses effects of corruption on innovative activities. It argues that despite corruption is traditionally considered as a highly negative phenomenon, it may have a positive effect on innovation. This position allows to explain why developing countries with a high level of corruption sometimes demonstrate better indicators of innovative activity in particular areas than less corrupt advanced economies. However, our study shows that this positive relationship exists because of the prevalence of more serious problems associated with the persistent presence of the state in various spheres of economy. Moreover, we argue that not all innovations are in fact socially desirable, and those that are an outcome of rent-seeking behavior and incorporation of private interests in the legal system often negatively affect market mechanisms and undermine sustainable economic performance.
The book is the result of an extensive research conducted by professors of five academic institutions from Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa - the BRICS countries. The purpose of this work is to analyze the anti-corruption and anti-money laundering legislation in each of these countries, showing the similarities and differencies in terms of domestic legal frames and the international guidelines.
This paper presents a survey-based methodological approach to detect potential opportunism by counterparts who are linked with agents through contractual relations. The methodology proposes asking counterparts about attitudes toward some behaviors of agents, which are undesirable from the principal and benevolent counterpart perspective. The approach identifies the potential opportunism of counterparts based on the intensity with which they justify such behavior and provide unrealistic assessments of commonly known problems. The approach is especially important in a situation where the rules are inconsistent with reality and the principal can no longer disentangle the benevolent and opportunistic behavior of the agent. The authors test this approach by conducting a survey of procurers and suppliers of public procurement contracts in Russia.