In this paper we consider the possible worlds ontology as an instrument of analysis and clarification of some traditional notions of philosophy, logic and semantics. How many facets does the concept of possible world have? What do these facets represent? Our aim is to divide two ways in which possible worlds can enter into the complex network of assertion, denotation and interpretation. The first way we call the “point of reference”; the second is to be the “context of use”. To let possible worlds play both roles is to get a more adequate and flexible analytical tool which can bring us closer to the solution of many perplexed problems of modern logic.
An issue of ontological commitments of the language often is just stated without being the subject to analysis and considerations. Some aspects of logical semantics prove to have an ontological perspective as the result of variety of methods of semantic analysis. In case of formal languages ontological commitments require the strict formulation which allows even to introduce some brief version of the typology of those.
This paper traces the scientific evolution of Elena Dmitrievna Smirnova, the founder of the national school of logical semantics. It is addressed the most significant Smirnova’s results in the development of model-theoretical methods, the theory of semantical categories, and intentional logic. The originality of her synthesis approach to logical semantics, which opens new perspectives in the foundations of apodictic knowledge, is argued for. The paper shows the role of Smirnova’s scientific and pedagogical activity in the development of philosophical logic in Russia.