On the basis of a synthesis of domestic and foreign experience in the development of reindeer husbandry, indicators for assessing the effectiveness of reindeer husbandry were systematized and factors affecting efficiency were analysed. The effect on efficiency of breeding type, size and structure of herd, diversification of production, fodder base, selection work, channels of sale of products, etc., is shown. According to18 farms of the Altay Territory, the impact of reindeer husbandry on the profitability of organizations is shown. In order to increase the efficiency of reindeer husbandry, com- prehensive development of production, processing and marketing of products is necessary. In order to control the increase in the number of deer and to preserve pasture from overgrazing, subsidies must be allocated for the actual number of deer within the permissible number.