Учебное пособие для работы над книгой Джерома К. Джерома "Трое в лодке"
The article discusses one argument in favor of descriptive theory of reference of proper names against the theory of direct reference which appeals to a famous example of the ship of Theseus. The author defends the latter theory by means of distinguishing the object of direct reference and its principles of individuation. The argument is discussed with reference to the works of H. Chandler, L. Linsky, S. Kripke, N. Salmon and other theorists.
2018 Global Marketing Conference at Tokyo
- Editor Prof. Jeonghye Choi (Yonsei University) - Assistant Dr. Jeeyeon Kim (Yonsei University)
At present time there are three main tendencies in the translation theory: the linguistical trend, the communicative one and the cognitive-psycholinguistic tendency. The cognitive-psychological approach to the translation theory appeared due to the fact that traditional theories of translation (linguistical and communicative ones) had paid too little attention to the investigation of active position of a translator to the assimilation and generation of texts and background facts. In the basis of the cognitive-psychological approach lays the idea that translation process is the verbal and cogitative process that allows a translator to form a certain structure of meanings as the result of the origin text comprehension.
The paper analyzes popularity of different translation models during the two-year’s period (October 2014 – September 2016). The data for the analysis is provided by the Yandex Wordstat service. The comparative analysis of amount of search queries fulfilled by the users of Internet informs that there are several most popular models of translation among others: the semantical theory of translation, the transformational one , the situational one and the theory of levels of equivalence whereas the cognitive-heuristic model of translation is in its formation phase and requires further development.
The article also foregrounds the possibility of the cognitive-heuristic approach not only to the text translation but also to the text comprehension. As the texts under consideration, we have chosen a number of scientific definitions, which are difficult for perception . These scientific definitions have the resemblance representation in Russian and English educational and scientific literature. The process of searching of prototypical meanings of the words, which have contradictory perception and lead to misunderstanding and misconception is represented. In the paper we use the method of introspection and the data of monolingual explanatory dictionaries of Russian and English languages. Through the article, we trace the dependence of comprehension of given scientific definition upon the cognitive-heuristic search. We display the advantages of the appliance of cognitive-heuristic model of translation in comparison with some translation models based on the searching of words-equivalents. The results are verified by the participation of a group of four student.
Pleonastic Constructions In English Legal Texts
Quite a number of English legal texts, featuring largely contract law, provide linguistic evidence of both terminology, and/or commonly used vocabulary, with semantically identical or related meaning used at a time within the same text sequences. Such constructions appear challenging for taxonomic classification by linguists and lawyers alike. An analysis of examples allows for attributing such usage samples to pleonastic constructions typical for the legal language.
In the article position of S. Kripke, which is presented in his lectures "Identity and necessity", is considered. The thesis is proved that necessity of identity for names with strict reference will be carried out on the whole universum of such names, as non-descriptive names do not have their own sense. It excludes for them reference to various objects (or to classes of objects). The identity of non-descriptive names is possible only in a case poly-naming of the same object or of the same class of homogeneous objects (in case of a general non-descriptive name).
In many areas, such as social science, politics or market research, people need to track sentiment and their changes over time. For sentiment analysis in this field it is more important to correctly estimate proportions of each sentiment expressed in the set of documents (quantification task) than to accurately estimate sentiment of a particular document (classification). Basically, our study was aimed to analyze the effectiveness of two iterative quantification techniques and to compare their effectiveness with baseline methods. All the techniques are evaluated using a set of synthesized data and the SemEval-2016 Task4 dataset. We made the quantification methods from this paper available as a Python open source library. The results of comparison and possible limitations of the quantification techniques are discussed.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.