Местное самоуправление и гражданское участие в сельской России
The article analyzes the prerequisites for creating TOS communities, the features of their functioning and efficiency. To do this, the authors use a variety of sources of information, including a number of surveys conducted in Kirov. Evaluation of regression models shows that the conditions for the emergence of TOSs include grassroots social capital and property rights, but at the same time citizens feel responsibility for the city and seek to gain the support of the authorities in solving local problems. At the same time, TOSs appear more often where people do not believe in the collective ability of society to achieve accountability and effective work of municipal authorities.
Abstract. Over the last fifteen years municipalities in Russia have lost a significant part of their financial autonomy: the average share of transfers from regional budgets to municipal budgets has doubled. Simultaneously, mu- nicipalities have lost their political autonomy from the regional authorities. The article is dedicated to finding answers to such questions as whether the growth of the financial and political dependence of municipalities went hand in hand with the politicization of regional intergovernmental transfers and whether elec- tion results affect the amount of funds received by municipalities from regional budgets. The authors used an original dataset on two types of intergovernmental transfers, the distribution of which depends on regional authorities, for 70 mu- nicipalities of the Perm Krai and the Novgorod Oblast, 2013—2017.
The regression analysis conducted by the authors confirmed the hypothe- sis that redistribution of budgetary funds between municipalities is decided on political grounds, but this holds true only at the beginning of the electoral cy- cle, which is consistent with the model of rewarding a loyal electorate. As is the case at the federal level, this is about rewarding those who produce “good” electoral results and punishing those who produce “bad” electoral results rath- er than courting swing voters or buying off most problematic territories. The fact that the municipality has its own parliamentarian in the regional legisla- ture can also contribute to obtaining more transfers. Municipal needs for in- frastructure have no impact on the size of transfers.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.