Word Formation. An International Handbook of the Languages of Europe
The volume comprises both chapters discussing various theoretical and typological issues concerning word formation and the descriptions of word formation in individual languages of Europe.
The chapter provides the general description of word formation in Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian). Adyghe is a highly polysynthetic language with a very weak distinction between nouns and verbs. Compounding and affixation (including both suffixation and prefixation) are widespread. Morphological means often allow recursion and the order of morphemes depends on the semantics to a large extent. Inflection and derivation are not distinguished clearly. While deverbal nominal derivation is highly developed, most “verbal” formation actually applies to all kinds of bases. Minor parts-of-speech like adjectives and adverbs show dedicated markers. Conversion proper is occasional.
Word-formation processes in Aghul (a Northeast Caucasian language spoken in Daghestan, Russia) include both compounding and derivation. Verbal compounding is very productive and is the primary way of enriching the verbal lexicon in the modern language, using borrowed Russian verbs. In contrast, although there are quite a large number of nominal compounds, they seem to be fixed expressions and no new compounds are created. Derivation is mainly suffixal with the exception of verbal locative and repetitive derivation achieved by prefixes. Various types of full reduplication, as well as echo-reduplication and partial reduplication are fairly productive.