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## Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Imprecise Probability: Theories and Applications (ISIPTA;13)

The paper is devoted to the description of extreme points in the set of 2-monotone measures. We describe them using lattices on which an extreme 2-monotone measure is additive. We also propose the way of generation extreme monotone measures based on the aggregation of extreme measures with the help of multilinear extension. We describe also the class of extreme 2-monotone measures that are additive on the filter on which a 2-monotone measure has a positive values.

The motion detection in video is considered. We break non-binary motion mask on blocks and calculate a certain statistics for each block. Then we use prior information about statistics distribution to classify blocks on background and foreground. The estimation framework for classification confidence is presented.

In the paper we continue investigations started in the paper presented at ISIPTA’15, where the notions of lower and upper generalized credal sets has been introduced. Generalized credal sets are models of imprecise probabilities, where it is possible to describe contradiction in information, when the avoiding sure loss condition is not satisfied. The paper contains the basic principles of approximate reasoning: models of uncertainty based on upper previsions and generalized credal sets, natural extension, and coherence principles.

We show that if preferences can be defined with an additive utility function then decision making models based on the theory of criteria importance can be defined with imprecise probabilities. With this idea, we analyze new approaches to decision making in the theory of criteria importance.

In the paper we consider the generalization of the conjunctive rule in the theory of imprecise probabilities. Let us remind that the conjunction rule, produced on credal sets,gives their intersection and it is not defined if this intersection is empty. In the last case the sources of information are called contradictory1. Meanwhile, in the Dempster-Shafer theory it is possible to use the conjunctive rule for contradictory sources of information having as a result a nonnormalized belief function that can be greater than zero at empty set. In the paper we try to exploit this idea and introduce into consideration so called generalized credal sets allowing to model imprecision (non-specificity), conflict, and contradiction in information. Based on generalized credal sets the conjunctive rule is well defined for contradictory sources of information and it can be conceived as the generalization of the conjunctive rule for belief functions. We also show how generalized credal sets can be used for modeling information when the avoiding sure loss condition is not satisfied, and consider coherence conditions and natural extension based on generalized credal sets.

To model conflict, non-specificity and contradiction in information, upper and lower generalized credal sets are introduced. Any upper generalized credal set is a convex subset of plausibility measures interpreted as lower probabilities whose bodies of evidence consist of singletons and a certain event. Analogously, contradiction is modelled in the theory of evidence by a belief function that is greater than zero at empty set. Based on generalized credal sets, we extend the conjunctive rule for contradictory sources of information, introduce constructions like natural extension in the theory of imprecise probabilities and show that the model of generalized credal sets coincides with the model of imprecise probabilities if the profile of a generalized credal set consists of probability measures. We give ways how the introduced model can be applied to decision problems.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.