Заработная плата в России: эволюция и дифференциация
The shift from a centrally planned to a market-based economy involves, amongst other elements, the restructuring of state-owned or privatized enterprises. Realigning product lines, adopting new technology and imposing sound finances are all important stages in the integration of enterprises into world markets.
This book analyses the efficiency and equity of the economic restructuring in the two largest successor states of the Soviet Union, Russia and Ukraine. It raises important questions such as why these countries have been relatively slow to pursue restructuring policies, how the transition has affected labour markets and institutions, and how it impacted on poverty and social safety. The analysis is based on a careful examination of micro-level data, documenting the experiences of and interactions between individuals and institutions.
This paper examines wage differentials between permanent/non-permanent and full-time/part-time employees. The analysis is based on the representative Household Survey of Welfare dataset, collected by Rosstat and the World Bank in 2003. The results show that non-permanent workers suffer a loss in wages while part-timers earn more per hour than full-timers, but the wage gap diminishes substantially when controlled for observed and non-observed characteristics. It seems that the theory of segmented labor markets is quite appropriate for explaining these differences in the Russian labor market.
In the article the classification of indicators of efficiency of scientific activity, and also the list of criteria which they should satisfy are suggested. The indicator of productivity of scientific activity used in Russia (IPSA) is analyzed and its limitation for measurement of the results of scientific activity is proved. New IPSA, the technique of their calculation and the way of calculation of the wages of the faculty on the basis of these indicators are worked out.
scientific activity, a productivity indicator, a citing index, the impact factor
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.