Корейский полуостров: время новых вызовов. Доклады, представленные на XIII научной конференции корееведов России и стран СНГ
Moral education in Korea was traditionally seen as the very core of educational process and so it was strictly controlled by the state. After division of Korea in 1945 during reorganization of system of education in South Korea moral upbringing was included as a core part in national curriculum for primary and secondary school. Since from the very beginning the content of this discipline has been exclusively provided by the government besides moral values, cultural norms it contains main aspects of dominant political ideology as well. The last ones even prevailed during some periods of Korean history. That explains the fact that the moral education curriculum was corrected every time the ruling political regime or some core aspects of dominant ideology had changed.
The proceedings of the III International Scientific Conference of Young Orientalists, which was held at the Institute of Far Eastern Studies in November 2015, cover different aspects of the development of the countries of Northeast Asia and their cooperation with Russia. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the current state and prospects of political, military and economic development of China, Japan, Mongolia, North and South Korea in various fields in the context of the current military and political situation in the world and main regional economic trends. Some issues of cultural, social and historical development of Russia's Far Eastern neighbors are also explored.
The paper focuses on the one of the Kingship symbols in Korea in the Joseon period namely “The Screen of the Sun, the Moon and the Five Peaks” (Irworobongdo). The Screen was one of the obligatory attributes of the ruler, it symbolized his presence and connection with the universe. According to the modern South Korean historians, the first Screen was placed behind the lifetime portrait (1393) of the founder of the Joseon dynasty — Yi Seong-gye (T’aejo, 1335–1408, ruled 1392–1398). According to my research, this statement is unreasonable because the portrait of Yi Seong-gye has not survived, and we can deal only with its copy now, that was painted in the 18th century. The article explains that the Screen originally was only one of the symbols of the royal authority but its role changed in the 17–19th centuries, after the Manchu conquered Korean peninsula — this dramatic events led to sudden increase of anti-Manchu and (later) anti-Qing views which influenced and strengthened Korean self-identity. Basing on the historical examples, I conclude that the Screen started to play an important role in the state ritual starting from the anti-Manchu politics but became irreplaceable part of Kingship only in the late 19th century. Apart from the historical view, the article gives interpretation to visual images on the Screen and studies the meaning of the Screen in the state ritual. According to the results of our research the Screen placed behind a King’s throne symbolically made a King a ruler of space and time.
Invaluable role of Korean youth in the national liberation movement of Korea, in the fight against the Japanese colonization of the independence of the homeland. Analysis of activity of Korean youth organizations will allow to identify their role and place in the struggle for independence and its influence on the development of self-consciousness and national consciousness of the Korean youth. The article is devoted to the Korean youth movement in the 1920s. For the first time introduced into circulation new documents and materials from Russian archives, presents an analysis of the structure of various youth organizations, including the first Komsomol organizations in Korea, Manchuria, Japan and Russia. The main goals and objectives of youth organizations were directed not only to fight against the colonial domination of Japan, one of the main tasks of the Korean youth was educational activities directed at the elimination of Korean traditional values, the struggle for equality in society and in the family. Intuitively presented and ideological struggle between youth organizations, religious, socialist, communist and nationalist orientation, covers the activities of the Korean section of the Komsomol Communist Youth International (CIY). Sufficiently clear traced and ideological incompatibility not only in the youth movement, but also in general in the Korean independence movement.
The book "Korea and Russia: Society, politics, history, culture. To the 120th anniversary of Korean studies in the St. Petersburg State University version "includes articles written on the basis of reports presented at the international scientific conference “120 years Russian and Korean Studies at St. Petersburg State University, which took place October 13-14, 2017. In 15 chapters of the book, 5 of which are in English, the reader can get acquainted with the widest range of studies covering areas such as social change in Korean and Russian societies, history, culture, literature, linguistics of Korea, as well as History of Korean studies in Russia and abroad. Also, the book provides an opportunity to get acquainted with a number of achievements of South Korean colleagues in the millet exploring Russia. The book is intended for professionals, students of higher educational institutions of oriental profiles, as well as for all interested history, culture, society of Korea.
Sociologists and pollsters became interested in measuring attitudes of Russians towards the DPRK and the Republic of Korea already in the early 1990s. Despite the ideological differences between the two states the majority of the Russian population does not distinguish between them well and has approximately the same feelings according to the data of the Levada-Center collected in 2013. About half of respondents have expressed positive towards both of them, 17% have negative attitudes, and 24% have no opinion (found it difficult to answer). The survey demonstrates only one tenth of Russians as having differently characterized their attitudes towards the two countries. In particular, 9% felt sympathy for South Korea and antipathy towards North Korea, and 2% - vice versa. At the same time, very few Russians consider both North and South Korea to be strategic allies or opponents of the Russian Federation. The survey analysis reveals a pronounced positive attitude towards only North Korea (but not towards South Korea) as typical for the older generation born and grown up in the Soviet Union, that could not adapt and did not achieve great success in the new economic conditions and in many respects remained faithful to the communist ideology. Conversely, a positive attitude towards South Korea is typical predominantly for economically successful young and middle-aged people sharing Western values. The attitudes of Russians depend both on the individual social-economic characteristics and historic and cultural background of the relationship with Korea. Despite the different trajectories of the development of relations after World War II, Russia currently maintains good-neighborly relations with both the DPRK and the Republic of Korea.
The 17–18th centuries in Korea are characterized by the sharp increase in the number of works devoted to geography and history. The reason was the emergence of new knowledge about the world, coming to the Korean peninsula through regular contacts with the Manchu empire of Qing. It is worth mentioning that the nature of these works was diametrically opposed: on the one hand, in the higher aristocratic Confucian circles, the mythical “All Under Heavens Map”s called cheonhado, appealing to ancient history, were popular; on the other hand, a group of sirhak scholars who fought for the “real knowledge”, tried to find a compromise between the new methods of studying space and the traditional sinocentric worldview.
This article focuses on one of the geographical writings of the second half of the 18th century the “Description of the Mountains” (Sangyeongpyo) of the court official-censor Shin Gyeongjun 申景濬 (1712-1781). This work is the first proto-scientific attempt to classify all the Korean mountains according to their location and size. The work continues the study of the so-called “The Great Paektu Trunk" of the Baektu-taegan, or the Great Trunk, started earlier by the scholars of the second half of the 18th century. – Yi Chung-hwan 李重煥 (1690-1756?) and Yi Ik 李瀷 (1681-1763).
The article is aimed to reconstruct the biography of Shin Gyeongjun – and for the first time in Russian Korean Studies the research is based on the royal chronicles “Joseon Wangjo Sillok” 朝鮮王朝實錄; and to analyze the content of the “Description of the Mountains” – this is also done for the first time in Russian Korean Studies.
According to Shin Gyeongjun, the Korean mountain range system should be correctly explained through the fifteen different mountain ranges. He believed it is possible to distinguish one “huge trunk” daegan (大幹), one “main trunk” jeonggan (正幹) and thirteen “main veins” jeongmaek (正脈). Shin Gyeongjun was the first state council who presented the whole description of the Korean mountain ranges, and thus he influenced the development of Korean geography and cartography.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.