Наблюдая за китайцами. Скрытые правила поведения
The article concerns the perception of China in Japan in Nishikawa Joken’s (1648-1724) treatise «Zoho kai tsu:sho: ko». Purpose. I aimed to reconstruct the perception of China in the source mentioned above, and to assume whether in was representative for the middle of the Edo period (1603-1867) on the whole or not. Results. Nishikawa Joken’s treatise can be considered a representative source on the topic, due to the fact that it was adjusted and republished during the Edo period several times and even parodies appeared based on this treatise. Further, the author disposed quite detailed information about the neighboring country. The description included a preface with general remarks and an afterword discussing traditions and cults of Chinese sailors arriving at Nagasaki. Every Chinese province was described in a separate chapter, composed according to a pattern, that changed little throughout the text. The pattern included the historical past of the province, its geographic position, its climate, cultural and dialectical peculiarities, local production and trade routes, and famous places that can be found within the province. Textual description was adjusted by a map and several pictures of Qing and Ming courtiers and Chinese ships. China was the only foreign country in the treatise in connection to which particular persons were mentioned: for example, Confucius, the warlord and merchant Zheng Chenggong (1624 - 1662, also known as Koxinga among the Europeans), and the philosopher Zhou Donyi (1017 - 1073). In Koxinga’s case, there is even a short biography present. Also, China is the only country for which Nishikawa definitely divides its historic past from its present. He mentions that since the Manchurian conquer, customs have changed for the worse and all Chinese nowadays look like barbarians. Nishikawa knows Nanjing much better than other provinces, as its description is the most extensive, and he obviously prefers it to other parts of China. The description is rather Japanised: Joken adapts the pronunciation of Chinese place-names to Japanese phonetics. He also uses Japan as the anchor to explain the difference between Chinese provinces. Conclusion. The description of China in Nishikawa Joken’s treatise demonstrates detailed knowledge of the country, at the same time Joken’s approach has nothing in common with sinocentricity; the center for him is rather Japan. This view of China can be considered representative for this period on the whole.
The paper focuses on the main factors underling the structural transformation of Asian model of socio-economic development – slowdown in economic growth, expansion of domestic consumption, increasing role of services, technological development and changes in geography of production and trade. Analysis of the factors serves as a base for the assessment of changes in the key components of aggregate demand of Asian countries as well as for the forecast of further evolution of demand and trade and economic cooperation of Asian countries with foreign partners, including Russia.
This book is dedicated to the history of China in the V-XV сenturies from Lu-Chao epoch till the end of the rule of Ming dynasty. Along with the description of military-political events of Chinese history, other aspects of the development of Chinese civilization are briefly presented such as craft and trade, science and technology, culture and art, religion and philosophy. Besides each chapter of the Chinese history is accompanied by the texts with the short summery of the state of Oecumene affairs in that period. This allows to synchronize the history of Celestial empire with the history of other regions.
The book is dedicated to the most memorable places in Moscow and Saint-Peterburg, related to the activities of the Chinese revolutionaries in Soviet Russia. It gives a reader an opportunity to make a picture of where and how the Chinese revolutionaries lived and worked. Most of the photos and documents are published for the first time.
The article discusses the features of the activities of consular institutions of the Russian Empire in Mongolia in the field of analysis of the political and military situation there in early XX Century. It examines the work of foreign establishments of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for monitoring the implementation of China’s policy in Outer Mongolia and the neighboring regions, highlights the participation of Russian diplomats in limiting the spread of Japanese influence in Mongolia, and explains their mediation role in resolving the “Tibet issue”.